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Addison A,O’Hare W-T,Kassem M,Dawood N

The importance of engaging engineering and construction learners in virtual worlds and serious games

Abstract: The engineering and construction industries require their workforce to undertake complex learning and training activities. Exposing new employees, graduates, or apprentices to these environments could endanger their safety and the safety of those working with them. On site education and training also requires an investment of time from skilled individuals and companies. Problems accessing environments, such as construction sites, heavy plants or chemical manufacturers, are substantially heightened by the need to risk assess and comply with Health and Safety legislation making the traditional “hands on” and “shadowing” approaches to training and education more complicated than in the past. These difficulties are also compounded by changes to the geographical locations (e.g. distance learning, on site) of those studying to join these career paths or progress within them. Therefore, educational institutions and trainers must consider how to deliver this skill based learning for both those with access to academic premises and those learning at a distance. New technologies such as serious games are one of the solutions being explored. This paper undertakes an analysis of safety issues and safety training and learning methods relating to the construction industry. The paper takes its start point from a Health and Safety Executive commissioned report in 2003 (Hide et al, 2003) and questions if sufficient improvements in safety have been achieved within the construction industry since its publication. Then, the paper investigates the development of education and training that meets the necessary reality and complexity of engineering and construction sectors and the ability of serious games to provide timely and accessible training to achieve competency within these sectors.

Keywords: Competency,learning,safety,serious games,training,virtual worlds

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Full text: content.pdf (579,452 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Agger K

Facilities management IT tools: building model, basic information and graphics

Abstract: The need for small easy to use Facilities Management IT tools for the existing building stock has led to the development of IokalEjdlnFo a windows based managementhnformation system with graphical navigation. The first version is in use in public institutions and the second version is under consideration among a broad group of FM experts in DK. IokalEjdlnFo has been implemented as a database system with graphicdCAD added on. The paper will discuss the building model used in the system, the sufficient model for FM in comparison with the necessary CAD model for building and the possibilities for extracting the FM building model from the CAD model. Basic information on the property is extracted from public databases and is used for automated generation of part of the objects in the building model. Graphic information is extracted from CAD models of the building or created from scanned drawings by the means of simple CAD tools added to the database tool as extensions. Graphics are used for graphic navigation in the model, for extracting quantities and for presentation of information. The paper discuss strategies for FM and CAD.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,174,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.036948) class.man-software (0.031639) class.communication (0.011701)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Bakkeren W J C

Integrating structural design and analysis through product modelling

Abstract: Application of information technology in the realisation of concurrent engineering is essential (although not sufficient by itself. A research issue in the realisation of computer supported concurrent engineering is the sharing of information between computer applications. This sharing can be achieved with product models . In the structural engineering process, two kinds of information sharing can be distinguished: the sharing with other disciplines and the sharing within the discipline (between structural design and analysis). These two kinds of sharing require two kinds of product models: a model to integrate disciplines (a kernel model) and a model to integrate activities within the discipline (a discipline view model). This paper describes a kernel model for the integration of disciplines in the building process and a view model for the integration of the activities in the structural engineering process.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,752,925 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.034075) class.represent (0.011743) class.processing (0.005529)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Bandic M, Izetbegovic J

A framework for research of IT application in Croatian construction companies

Abstract: Croatian construction companies are passing dramatically changes by privatisation and restructuring according to the market needs of today and especially during future huge reconstruction and development of Croatian (as well Bosnia and Herzegovina) economy. The market conditions in these Republics are for now: scarcity of financial means, scarcity of personal educated and trained in modern management methods, scarcity of some profiles of skilled people in construction, very strong competition of foreign companies, since Croatian (and B and H) market is now open for foreign companies. The specific after war conditions include also new legal and business structure (completely new legislative based on the practice of developed western democratic states) new financial structure and institutions (also based on the financial structure of the developed countries). In the chaining of the subsystems: [ ownership - undertaking - management - transformed ownership] , information technology is fundamental but not sufficient enabler for quality decision making and efficiently management of the construction processes. Based on the IT application, there are necessary educated and trained management people, adequate decisions, and realisation. By adequate IT application design and construction processes are probably rationalised and accelerated, by satisfaction of the high quality standards, so that construction companies could easier adapt to market needs. What are necessary prerequisites (organization, IT, personnel, other) for making and carrying out of the quality decisions? In which degree IT application (modern information technologies, expert systems, CAD/CAM, GIS, CASE) influence on decision quality? What are other factors are influencing (knowledge degree, psychological state, environment, market)? On such question have been proposed and accepted research program under the name "Development of IT application in Croatian construction companies" by Croatian Ministry for science and technology. The goals: * Continually research of development of IT application in companies that are active in design, construction and maintenance of construction objects. * Comparative overview of IT application state to different criteria * Proposition of strategy development of IT application in construction * Creation of IT data base for information and experience exchange between the foreign and domestic construction companies * Proposition of education programme of IT application in construction * The questionnaire is now in distribution, and research will be carried out in the next three years. * The paper will explain the research approach, and eventually the first results.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,526 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.024035) class.legal (0.021667) class.education (0.019299)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Bella Nguyen and Ioannis Brilakis

Minimising Misclassifications of Over-Height Vehicles Due to Wind

Abstract: Over-height vehicle strikes with low bridges and tunnels are an ongoing problem worldwide. While previous methods have used vision-based systems to address the over-height warning problem, such methods are sensitive to wind. In this paper, we propose a constraint-based approach to minimise the number of over-height vehicle misclassifications due to windy conditions. The dataset includes a total of 102 over-height vehicles recorded at frame rates of 25 and 30 fps. At this frame rate, we analysed sampling rates to determine the sufficient number of positive frames required to provide accurate warnings to drivers. Optical flow and KLT feature-tracker algorithm was used to detect and track feature points of motion. Motion captured within the region of interest was treated as a standard two-class binary linear classification problem with 1 indicating over-height vehicle presence and 0 indicating noise. The algorithm performed with 100% recall, 83.3% precision and false positive rate of 8.3%.

Keywords: Bridge Strike, Tunnel Strike, Over-Height Vehicle, Over-Height Vehicle Detection System, Bridge Strike Prevention

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0249

Full text: content.pdf (3,818,410 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Bloomfield D P

The role of case studies in the uptake of innovation in construction

Abstract: The UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions has initiated a Construction Best Practice programme. The primary objective is to improve management best practices. The technical performance of the industry also needs to be improved by identifying and promoting opportunities for industry to adopt new technical innovations and incorporate them into standard practices. Accordingly, a series of Technical Best Practice initiatives will be set up. One of these will cover Construction IT. It is expected that Case Study material will form an important element of the IT Best Practice programme. Concrete examples of use of technology in practice are likely to be more convincing than simple exhortations and theoretical reports. There are three major issues that need to be addressed. 1. A Case Study is, by its nature, very specific and it can be difficult for the reader to ascertain if there is sufficient commonality between the problem described and the situation that he/she faces in order to assess whether the solutions are applicable. 2. It is difficult to describe the problem and solutions in sufficient detail, yet in a way that encourages the material to be read, understood and used. Ideally a common format needs to be developed for describing the key facts. 3. A further aspect of importance is how to determine what applications are most in need of Case Studies. Limited resources are available and it is essential that these are targeted in such a way as to produce maximum returns for the industry as a whole. This paper describes a framework for addressing these three issues and will provide an update of the work of the UK Construction IT Technical Best Practice programme.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,114 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.009079) class.social (0.005934) class.legal (0.002856)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Cho-Chien Lu, Shih-Chung Kang, Shang-Hsien Hsieh

SimuSurvey: a computer-based simulator for survey training

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a computer-based simulator for survey training, referred to as SimuSurvey. Because modern survey instruments are usually expensive, difficult to maintain, and sensitive to weather conditions, surveying course instructors often find it difficult to supply sufficient high-quality instruments for the class. Also, the instructors often suffer the need to repeat similar instructions about instrument operations to individual stu-dents; and, lack a good means of recording each student’s learning progress. SimuSurvey was designed to address these issues - for use in survey training in a computer-generated virtual environment at a low cost. The functions cur-rently provided by SimuSurvey include: (1) the visualization of a survey instrument and measurement poles involved in an assigned survey task; (2) the simulation of the control interface of a real surveying instrument; (3) the recording of each student’s performed operations; and (4) design of learning activities for students to practice surveying tasks in a simulated environment. The focus of this paper is on the design and implementation of SimuSurvey. An example is pro-vided to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of SimuSurvey to survey training.

Keywords: simulator, survey training, engineering education, virtual reality, augmented reality

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Full text: content.pdf (1,748,371 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Daoud Kiomjian, F. Jordan Srour and Issam Srour

Using ABM to Evaluate the Impact of Social Networks on Construction Labor Productivity

Abstract: Labour productivity depends on a wide variety of factors, some of which pertain to characteristics of the construction crews themselves. Several of these factors such as language and demographics are described in the literature as soft or intangible and are of stochastic nature. As such, traditional deterministic modelling techniques are not sufficient to capture the full picture of the factors that come into play when considering construction labour productivity. Agent based modelling (ABM), a simulation technique with growing popularity, presents a powerful candidate for modelling construction sites due to its properties and ability to consider social aspects. This paper demonstrates that ABM is an acceptable paradigm for studying the effect of both tangible and soft features on construction labour productivity.

Keywords: Labour Productivity, Agent Based Modelling, Social Networks, Simulation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0112

Full text: content.pdf (1,281,962 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Egbu C O, Botterill C

Information technologies for knowledge management: their usage and effectiveness

Abstract: Knowledge is increasingly being recognised as a vital organisational resource that provides competitive advantage. Managing knowledge assets can be a challenge, especially in the construction industry, where short-term working contracts and temporary coalitions of individuals can inhibit knowledge sharing. The role of information technology (IT) in knowledge management (KM), is an essential consideration for any company wishing to exploit emerging technologies to manage their knowledge assets. This paper presents research, which has been conducted to identify the technologies that are currently used to manage knowledge in the construction industry. The effectiveness of these technologies has also been explored, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of particular IT for KM. In addition, it attempts to highlight some of the challenges and complexities associated with managing knowledge in a project-based environment. A postal questionnaire was distributed among construction organisations in order to obtain generalisable data about the role of IT for KM, in the construction industry. This approach was supplemented by ethnographic interviews to reveal richer data about the nature of IT for KM, in five small, medium and large construction organisations. The research revealed that conventional technologies, such as the telephone, are used more frequently to manage knowledge, than more radical IT, such as Groupware or video-conferencing. In construction organisations, the potential benefits of IT for KM, are not fully exploited and many have expressed a need for greater implementation of IT, appropriated by sufficient training and education of staff

Keywords: Information Technology, Information Communication Technology, Knowledge Management

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/8 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Engy Serag, Hesham Osman, Moustafa Ghanem

Semantic Detection of Risks and Conflicts in Construction Contracts

Abstract: Various problems facing construction contract administrators can be linked back to lack of understanding, misinterpretation and conflicts among contract clauses. Lack of adequate time to analyze contracts during the biding stage results in contractors entering into contracts without sufficient analysis of contractual risks. Advances in the fields of semantic information extraction, text mining and natural language processing create opportunities for developing semi-automated systems for detection of risks and conflicts in construction contracts. This paper presents a framework for semi-automated detection of risks and conflicts in FIDIC contracts. The system is comprised of four main components: 1) A Contract Ontology acts as the core knowledge repository of the system. The ontology contains a formalized representation of FIDIC general conditions and relevant stipulations from legal code, 2) Text mining/NLP module provides semi-automatic parsing tools for supplementary conditions of construction contracts and provide concept / relationship matching in tandem with the ontology, 3) Problematic Clause Database contains examples of high-risk and ambiguous clauses from previous projects and, 4) Logic Reasoners undertake the detection of high risk and conflicting clauses will take place. The paper presents examples of potential ambiguity and conflicts in construction contracts and showcases how the system can be used to semi-automated the detection process.

Keywords: Contract Management, Semantic Systems, Ontologies, Text Mining

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Full text: content.pdf (152,567 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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