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A den Otter, H Jan Pels, I Iliescu

BIM VERSUS PLM: RISKS AND BENEFITS

Abstract: Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a hot issue. The Building industry feels the urge to use it, but at the same time companies see huge risks, since the ownership and control of information becomes unclear when all building information is put together in one model. Also the cost and the benefits do not always land at the same place. To that account three Dutch firms operating in multi- disciplinary building & construction projects asked the authors to execute a research and design project how to solve this problem. As a result a framework for assessing risks was developed for setting up a successful BIM process. It seems the manufacturing industry is much ahead of the Building industry in using these concepts and technology, be it under the name of Product Lifecycle Management. However, comparing the approaches in the Building industry and manufacturing industry shows that, while construction is primarily interested in the risks, manufacturing is primarilyu focussed on the benefits. The paper tries to explain this difference and concludes with some suggestions to reduce risk and enhance the benefits of BIM for construction companies.

Keywords: Data collection, Product Lifecycle management, Building Information Modeling and Data storage.

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Full text: content.pdf (473,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Aparna Perikamana, Steven K. Ayer, Michael A. Beauregard and Suleiman Alsafouri

Development of a Collaborative Process Mapping Activity to Improve Students' BIM Process Mapping Understanding

Abstract: The use of BIM has become increasingly common, which has led to a growing demand for construction professionals with BIM knowledge and skills. BIM education is a solution to meet this growing need. Prior research suggests students associate BIM with a software solution rather than as a process illustrating a need to modify the current educational paradigms. This paper explores a pedagogical approach to developing BIM process planning skills among construction students. The research extends the findings of prior work that tasked students with developing process maps in a peer-reviewed context. This current iteration of the research explores the use of a collaborative, team-based, activity to generate Level 1 and Level 2 process maps, as defined by a previously published BIM Project Execution Planning Guide. The students were asked to create the process maps individually at first, and then again in groups of three. Pre- and post-questionnaires were given to analyse the studentsÕ perception of their knowledge. The primary objective of the research was to elicit a perception based response with respect to (i) studentsÕ ability to create a process map, (ii) enhancing the learning process, and (iii) students' perception about their own knowledge of the BIM execution process. In addition to perception based questions, the authors made observational analysis of completed process maps. The studentsÕ confidence in their ability in creating a process mapping dialogue box appears to have increased because of the activity. However, the studentsÕ perception about their ability to arrange the activities in sequence and parallel and the ability to create process map did not have any significant improvement. Based on the questionnaires and the suggestions given, it can be concluded that in both activities, the students had difficulties understanding the process mapping language. Future research may address the implementation of new pedagogical methods, incorporating the findings identified in this research thereby improving the measurable outcome of the students understanding of Process Mapping specific to BIM implementation.

Keywords: BIM, BIM Process Mapping, BIM Education, Collaborative Activity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0061

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Avani Goyal, Ahmet Kilinc, Minkyung Kang and Burcu Akinci

Energy Efficient Improvements to the Envelope of Low-Income Housing: A Case Study of Habitat for Humanity Homes

Abstract: Low-income families pay substantial portions of their total expenditure on household energy bills, making them vulnerable to rising energy costs. Habitat for Humanity houses are built for low-income families and made affordable with volunteer work and construction material donations. Hence, the trade-off between the homesÕ initial construction costs and their life-time energy costs must be evaluated carefully. This paper targets to support better-informed decisions that balance the affordability of certain construction materials with their potential for energy efficiency. In collaboration with Habitat for Humanity of Westchester, we created an energy simulation model of an existing low-income house and calculated the homeÕs annual energy usage with different design alternatives for windows and walls. The resulting estimated annual energy savings are then evaluated alongside their initial investment costs, which were retrieved from RS Means standard construction cost data and quotations from industry. The results show that it is possible to reduce the energy cost of these houses without significantly increasing the construction costs through exploration of different wall and window options. While specific enclosure suggestions apply to this case-study, the utilized approach on exploring different options to identify opportunities to save energy can be used to understand impact on the lives of low-income families.

Keywords: Low-Income Housing, Energy Efficiency, Cost Analysis, Residential Housing, Habitat for Humanity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0067

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Ekaterina Petrova, Mai Brink Rasmussen, Rasmus Lund Jensen and Kjeld Svidt

Integrating Virtual Reality and BIM for End-User Involvement in Design: A Case Study

Abstract: The outcome of projects within Architecture, Engineering, and Construction is highly dependent on the quality of the collaboration between the involved actors. The end-users occupy the buildings on a daily basis, and therefore their involvement in the design process is essential to the output. However, traditional practices place the responsibility of decision-making mostly in the architectsÕ hands. Virtual Reality technologies coupled with Building Information Modelling have the potential to improve the collaboration and data visualization in the building design.This paper presents the findings from a case study on the integration of Building Information Modelling and Virtual Reality for user-centred participatory interior furnishing of a new university building. Besides a significant reduction in the time for generation of alternative proposals, the end results show an increased attachment of the employees to their future workplace and a high level of acceptance towards the technology. Finally, the authors present suggestions for further work, which could improve future design processes utilizing the Virtual Reality technology.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Building Information Modelling, End-User Involvement, Interior Design, Participatory Design

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0266

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Elvekrok D R, Johansen B W, Syvertsen T G, Totland T

World wide web as a coordination technology for knowledge work

Abstract: This paper will bring some understanding of the World Wide Web as an information and coordination technology, and suggest some principles and metaphors for Web working. The suggestions will be underpinned by recent experiences from a collective Web-working project, and a transformation of a technical standard into hypertext format. Some ideas and visions for future developments based on the new medium are presented. World Wide Web is more than a tool or a technology, it is a new medium based on a set of very simple principles that enable us to cope with a vast Ocean of information and knowledge. The basics of World Wide Web and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) will be explained. A small-scale experiment in collective writing in Web will be reported. The task was development of the PAKT Yearbook of 1994, where a dozen of contributors worked concurrently on individual pieces around a shared Yearbook structure. This small project may in some sense resemble an engineering project, where many discipline experts are performing individual tasks around a shared goal and work breakdown structure. The experiment was based on use of Microsoft Internet Assistant which provides a simple add-on that makes Microsoft Word a combined Web reader and writer. Using this interface to the Web, working there is as simple as traditional word-processing. This mode of working can easily be expanded with any kind of tool based on the same concepts of process linking. There is, however, no support for the work processes associated with creating the product (in our case a Yearbook), or the organization of the processes. Based on our experiences, we suggest some metaphors and practical approaches to efficient Web working. Another experiment has been in the domain of technical standards. A couple of existing, paper- based standards from the petroleum industry have been converted to HTML, with cross-references transferred to active hyper-links. Using WWW as a one-way information server and as a shared working space will be illustrated. We see at least three future aspects of Web development; active objects replace static information, information structures will be supplemented by knowledge processes (enterprise modelling), and the information economy will evolve based on integrated flow of transactions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,745,393 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.065275) class.collaboration (0.038981) class.economic (0.022244)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


G Costa, P Pauwels

Building product suggestions for a BIM model based on rule sets and a semantic reasoning engine

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Series: w78:2015 (browse)
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Ha_kan Norberg & Thomas Olofsson

A PROCESS MODEL FOR CONSTRUCTION SYNCHRONISATION USING TIME-SPACE PLANNING METHODS AND FIELD FORCE AUTOMATION

Abstract: This paper explores a proposed process model for construction synchronisation. The aim of the paper is to show the potential of working according to the Last Planner System of production and control by combining time-space planning methods and Field Force Automation. In addition, the paper aims to show the benefits of working with real time support regarding taking control actions in the schedule and to collect data for follow- up analysis. The paper first provides a background of the research and a description of the various methods and tools used in the process model. A process model is proposed based on the last planner and control system for the implementation of a new ICT tool with the purpose to enhance, planning and control in order to enhance construction synchronisation. It is concluded that site managers needs tools to change their view of planning from static view of the schedule which can be revised once or twice per project to the view that the schedule is a total dynamic instrument to be used to develop prognosis and measure for avoiding waste and delays in the realisation phase of the construction project. The paper is concluded with suggestions for how the method can be further developed and improved.

Keywords: Construction synchronisation, Last Planner, 4D modelling, location based scheduling, field force automation

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Howard R, Resen J

Time factors in realising IT benefits in construction

Abstract: "IT context The concern over computer systems at the beginning of 2000 should have settled down by the time this paper is written, but it is symptomatic of an underlying, and recent, public concern that computers are not infallible. This has resulted in growing interest in measuring and predicting the benefits information technology can bring to business. The 'Productivity Paradox' contrasts the readiness with which companies buy individual IT systems with the absence of any proof that IT increases the productivity of whole industries. Paul Teicholz has recently shown that the construction industry in the US is not only falling behind other industries but that its productivity has declined in the last 30 years. Similar data can be presented for Denmark and the UK. Objectives This paper relates the evaluation of benefits of IT systems in construction to the time over which they are developed or implemented, and links this with the cyclic levels of activity from which all construction industries suffer. This leads on to suggestions about when IT systems of different types should be initiated in companies, in order to achieve full productivity at the stage of the cycle of activity when it is most critical. Methodology Ongoing work on how IT productivity is measured is combined with statistics on construction industry workload cycles in Denmark, The UK and the US. These show the variations between these countries and the paper suggests the optimum cycles on which different types of system should be replaced. Ths work is based upon surveys of how companies in construction measure IT benefits and government statistics. Conclusions The different time scales, ranging from development of customised systems to the introduction of off-the-shelf packages, have a major effect on evaluating benefits based on a changing workload. Little numerical evaluation is carried out at present because there are many different methods and reliable data required for these can be difficult to obtain. Major systems may need to be initiated at the peak of a cycle in order to be fully ready for the next peak, assuming that staff will be retained and training can be carried out during the intervening drop in workload. Work is in progress to develop a better method of evaluating benefits and will take these time factors into account"

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Full text: content.pdf (330,052 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.014425) class.impact (0.009302) class.commerce (0.009120)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Howard R

IT directions - 20 years' experience and future activities for CIB W78

Abstract: This paper looks back 20 years to the first CIB W78 conference that was organised by the author. It builds upon the analysis of themes by Amor & Betts reported at the 2002 conference and includes some analysis of the papers published in the journals Automation in Construction and ITcon. Trends in topics presented at annual CIB W78 events are analysed and suggestions made for future conference themes and links with other Working Commissions and the needs of developing countries. The role suggested for this successful group is that it continues to help exchange of international experience and encourage collaboration between research and industry and with other groups in CIB.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Ivan Mutis, Jose Solis

FLOORBOOK: A Social Network System to Enable Effective Interfacing of Project Actors

Abstract: Construction project participants constitute a complex social human network composed of a heterogeneous and fragmented set of stakeholders. The disjoint group of actors that team to work on a project constitutes collective entities, social networks at different scales in time and space. The proposed social network system is a semantic resource that leverages the communication and coordination of exchanging and sharing information. It is expected that it will enable an improvement in efficiency of the interfacing of actors and information. This semantic resource helps actors to minimize human intervention for coordination and information searching and retrieval, which are activities that demand costly resources and the use of specialized labor. Floorbook analyzes the vocabulary of the annotations on the forms of representation used in construction documentation, categorizes and models communities according to the user’s role in the shared form of representation, and makes suggestions to the users to optimize their particular world view, so that the suggested annotation is more precise and personalized. The basic rational of the approach is that the position of the users in a social network impacts their use in the system, and that the content of the annotations are part of a categorization model of a specific domain. The proposed social network system works as an effort of collective intelligence that enables the sharing of the semantics of the tags that are associated with the representations. As an effort of collective intelligence, Floorbook (1) models and extracts semantics from informal communication; (2) categorizes and models communities defined by common interests; and (3) self-learns from the history of user actions in the system to enable new value-added services, such as, for example, suggesting new candidate semantic tags as a result of the analysis of the representations to optimize the particular world view of an individual user.

Keywords: social-networking, communication, collaboration, emerging semantics

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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