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A Hore, F Cullen, R Montague, K Thomas

ADVANCING THE USE OF BIM THROUGH A GOVERNMENT FUNDED CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY CENTRE IN IRELAND

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to develop the early case for a new Competence Centre dedicated to industry led research in the Irish construction industry. It incorporates the results of a survey carried out by the Construction IT Aliance (CITA) and also identifies similiar centres carrying out industry led research around the world. Results from the survey show a clear support for the establishment of such a centre in Ireland and, in particular, a strong interest in Building Information Modelling (BIM) as a immediate priority research area. BIM is having a profound effect worldwide on the construction industry. The development and adoption of BIM technologies is in parallel with other major changes relating to project procurement approaches, such as Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), and the general sustainability agenda. Although slow to take off in Ireland to-date, BIM is becoming extremely relevant in other countries, with over 50% adoption in the United States and an average of 36% in Europe. The authors argue that a government funded Competence Centre will facilitate the Irish construction industry in re-establishing itself, domestically and internationally as a competitive entity.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Industry, Competence Centre, Collaboration, Integrated Project Delivery, Sustainable Construction

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Amirante I

Information technology teaching at the University: an experience at the Faculty of Architecture in Naples

Abstract: The experiences illustrated here refer to didactic activity carried out at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Naples; in particular these concentrate on the technological aspects of the teaching of architecture. We can consider the evolution of the architect from individual operator to manager of the multi-disciplinary aspects of the building process (building process manager) as a reality in today's Italy. The Support Systems of Information Technology (ITSS), can be of great importance €or this professional figure, and for this reason it is important to include him/her in the teaching process. I personally have involved fourth and fifth year and last-year undergraduate students in the following subjects at the experimental stage: degradation diagnosis supported by m Expert System in courses of the Technology of Building Rehabilitation; co-ordinated System of tests in degradation of existing buildings; the use of three-dimensional programmes to survey and visualize rhe territory; rapid analysis of degradation in the maintenance of urban facades. * In these and other similar works I'TSS has played a significant part for a global synthesis in students' methodological approaches, being an inttoduc tion to new Information Technology potentialities.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,158,179 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.036539) class.analysis (0.018067) class.synthesis (0.015849)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R

A UK survey of integrated project databases

Abstract: The UK network of experts in objects and integration for construction has now been in existence for a year. In this time it has built up to over a hundred members drawn in almost equal parts from industry and research. The initial meetings of this network have strived to identify areas of concern in the domain as well as to provide feedback to the supporting government agency in terms of policy issues, and to inform its members of the range of issues in the domain. The first published output of this network is to be a survey of integrated project databases (IPDB) in February 1998. This initial survey, analysed and described in this paper, looks at IPDB development and use in the UK. Preliminary work of the network determined a set of criteria to be used to measure the development and impact of various IPDB. These criteria were then used to survey a range of EC supported, UK developed, and commercial implementations of IPDB. Though not comprehensive in terms of the total number of IPDB developments in the world, it gives an initial benchmarking of the state of this domain. The results of this survey, and the ongoing surveys of IPDB developments, are being used to inform the network and government of the state of play in this area. It provides a point to determine: what work has previously been done; which data models might be re-used; where tools reside that could be re-used; where commercial developments have taken place which implement portions of the surveyed projects; what the problems of commercialisation have been; where there are gaps in research; and what life-cycle stages are poorly addressed by IPDB development.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,311 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.035336) class.environment (0.032167) class.strategies (0.031179)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Andresen J L

Cost and benefit assessments of IT systems in the construction industry

Abstract: This paper presents the results of four case studies that focus on cost and benefit assessments of IT systems in the Danish construction industry. The primary objectives in the case studies have been to (a) explore the difficulties with evaluating IT systems in the construction industry, (b) complete evaluations on particular IT systems in companies from the construction industry using four different IT evaluation methodologies and, ultimately, (c) develop a framework for how to select an IT evaluation method in different IT evaluation situations. The case studies are conducted as a part of a three-year Ph.D. project in order to collect the necessary data to fulfil the objectives stated in the Ph.D. project. The overall objective of the Ph.D. project is how to improve the knowledge and use of IT systems in the construction industry. To achieve this aim the Ph.D. project focuses on how construction companies can increase their knowledge about costs and benefits in their different IT applications by evaluating future IT investments and current IT systems. Specifically, the Ph.D. project focuses on developing a framework for how to select an appropriate IT evaluation method among the many available methods. Earlier in the Ph.D. project a questionnaire survey was completed analysing the current state (1999) of IT evaluation practices in the Danish construction industry. In the four case studies the following IT systems were evaluated: · An electronic document management system called Documentum · Upgrading AutoCad 14 to AutoCad 2000 · Two different ProjectWeb systems The case studies are completed in collaboration with four Danish [RH1] companies based on IT evaluation situations identified in the companies. The construction companies in the case studies comprise three large consulting engineers (Rambøll, Cowi and NIRAS) and one large contractor (Højgaard and Schultz). In each case the IT evaluation situation is identified and described in detail. Four different IT evaluation methods, each representing a larger group of IT evaluation methods, have been used and these are: · Measuring the Benefits of IT Innovation (developed by Construct IT in UK) · Information Economics (developed by M. M. Parker and R. J. Benson) · Net Present Value (unknown origin) · Critical Success Factors (J. Rockart) The case studies provide some hard data on the costs and benefits (both quantitative and qualitative) of the evaluated IT systems. The collected data can be used to create the basis for comparison in other similar cases (although one has to be aware that the data are very context dependent) and the result of the IT evaluations is in itself very interesting. Perhaps more interesting is the data collected about the IT evaluation process. This comprises, among other things, data on the usefulness of the evaluation methods in each of the IT evaluation situations and the identified strengths and weaknesses of the four IT evaluation methods. Lastly the four case studies are compared with some case studies conducted in UK during a six months stay at the University of Salford. The case studies in the UK were conducted in collaboration with another Ph.D. student, Nick Bunyan, on some large contractors (Costain, Alfred McAlpine and Taylor Woodrow). The case studies in the UK were using the IT evaluation method “Measuring the Benefits of IT Innovation”. This enables an international comparison between UK and Denmark to be carried out.

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Full text: content.pdf (183,662 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.028296) class.economic (0.020015) class.store (0.013421)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Andresen J L

How to select an IT evaluation method - in the context of construction

Abstract: In a number of surveys (both national and international) it has been highlighted that companies from the construction industry have difficulties with evaluating IT investments (Andresen 1999;CICA and CIRIA 1995). The reasons for this are many but one of the major ones is the poor adoption of IT evaluation methods. This paper focuses on how companies can choose between the many available IT evaluation methods by presenting a framework for how to choose a matching method. The primary objective of the paper is to present the findings of a completed Ph.D. project, but also importantly to discuss why this topic is relevant for companies in the construction industry by highlighting the benefits of increased knowledge of the value of companies' IT investments. The framework has been developed on the basis of both theoretical and empirical data collection and analysis of the available methods, a questionnaire survey and five case studies. Firstly, 82 IT evaluation methods have been identified in a literature review (and the list is not complete), from which a number of characteristics have been derived, and this has enabled a categorisation of the identified methods. Secondly, a national survey was completed investigating the sophistication of the Danish companies' IT evaluation practice. This was done in order to establish an overview of current IT evaluation practice. Thirdly, five case studies were completed in which four different methods were tested according to their usefulness in real-life IT evaluations. The presented framework consists of (a) 21 parameters (which can be used to describe the characteristics of different IT evaluation scenarios), (b) a weighting system (allowing putting a higher emphasis on certain parameters) and (c) a set of procedures for identifying a matching IT evaluation method. The framework's output has been validated by comparing these with the experience gained in the case studies.

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Full text: content.pdf (520,674 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.021078) class.roadmaps (0.020571) class.processing (0.007171)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Andrew P. McCoy, Robert Schubert, Robert Dunay, Joe Wheeler

lumenHAUS: Uses and Benefits of ICT for Design-Build Educational Environments

Abstract: By many accounts, American classrooms are not using the most effective means to properly educate and train young graduates and professionals. Common goals involve educational achievement and market advantage for students, with a wide variety of proposed solutions. Among the many solutions, technology in the classroom environment has been touted as one route for translating academic goals to the market. Education in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is no different: a rise in industry and classroom technology, paired with enrollment, justifies the need to re-focus solutions from technology to provide for the academic and market needs in the built environment. The recent Virginia Tech 2009 Solar Decathlon Competition (VTSD) offered an ideal setting for better understanding effective uses of technology in the translation of these AEC goals. VTSD was a student-led, integrated classroom environment incorporating students of all disciplines in the design and construction of an energy-efficient home. Information and communication technologies (ICT) played a major role in the educational and competitive efforts, all of which could translate to market advantage. This paper aims to explore academic uses and benefits of ICT for increased market acceptance through: 1) presenting common goals to the classroom, design-build education and the 2009 Solar Decathlon competition, 2) presenting various forms of ICT used to accomplish these goals and 3) presenting preliminary results of a survey of market acceptance for incorporated technologies.

Keywords: IT Supported Architectural and Engineering Design, Communication and Collaboration Technologies, Model Based Management Tools and Systems, Building Information Modeling

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Arif A A, Karam A H

A comparative study: with insight into the use of IT in local architectural practices

Abstract: This paper reports on the use of Information Technologies (IT) in the South African building industry. It offers an insight into the architecture profession, a profession that plays a major role in the construction sector. The analysis is based on the results of a survey conducted in the Western Cape Province during the year 2000. In an attempt to uncover the similarities and differences between the local context and the international one, this paper outlines a few elements of IT for comparison. After a brief introduction to the IT map of South Africa, the analysis concentrates on the following four issues: Response and Respondents, General IT usage, Use of Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) and Use of Networks. Each of these issues is framed in both the local and the international contexts. Despite the shortcomings of using different questions with different emphasis when referring to other surveys, it is still believed that reporting on local practices is not extremely meaningful in isolation. It is hoped that this type of analysis will serve to unravel the particulars of the construction industry in South Africa providing its counterparts with a new perspective.

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Full text: content.pdf (141,121 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Arif A, Karam A

Architectural Practices and Their Use of IT in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

Abstract: The application of Information Technologies (IT) is moving forward with tremendous speed affecting all industries and professions; our building profession is no exception. To identify the extent of IT application in the building construction context of South Africa, a survey was conducted in the year 2000; it included IT as one of the many topics investigated. The Western Cape Province (WCP) was selected as the first subject of the ambitious national survey. The survey provides insight into the particular patterns in IT applications within the local architectural industry of the WCP and tracks its implications in terms of human resources and technical needs. This research paper presents a focused perspective of the findings of the survey on the local practices; their general profile, their computer technology profiles, their particular applications of technology and finally the effect of computer use on the profitability and cost reduction of their practices. The data presented in this paper highlights the high numbers of small-sized offices as a general characteristic of the local profile. Although a good percentage of these small offices seem to have a high need and use for IT applications, larger-sized offices are totally computerised and are all networked as well. The use of computers is clearly concentrated in three areas: administration, communication in addition to the core activity of construction drawings production. The survey reveals a major dependency on computer-aided-design (CAD) software where its use extends, in most cases, to clients' presentations. This dependency makes high demands on staff and principals' literacy and on the high competency levels needed for their use of technology. On the financial effect of IT use, many practices are not fully convinced that there is an actual reduction in their running costs. The exception occurs in the case of practices run by principals who use computers themselves; they have a positive perception of the financial benefits of technology. This research establishes a baseline from which to scale the progress in the use and application of IT in the architectural profession, being a key player in the construction industry. It serves as a measure for future surveys of the other provinces. It is hoped that it provides a foundation for many assumptions made by practitioners, technologists, consultants and educators of this field.

Keywords: Architecture - South Africa, Architectural Practices, Building Construction, Computer-Aided-Design (CAD), Survey - Cape Town

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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B.H. Goh

Progression in IT adoption and stage of IT maturity in the construction sector of Singapore

Abstract: The IT maturity model, based on Nolan’s Stages of Growth Model, is applied to analyse the characteristics of IT users, IT facilitators and IT providers in relation to their respective degrees of awareness, degrees of application and degrees of integration. The objective is to assess and draw useful conclusions about the progression in IT adoption by the construction sector in Singapore. At the same time, it can help to determine the stage of IT development for this sector. The data used for the analysis includes information obtained from an industry-wide questionnaire survey followed by informal discussions with industry players, as well as a review of the relevant publications. Evidence shows that there is an increasing trend of companies improving their efficiency and productivity through using IT. There is also an increasing trend of education institutions promoting IT usage through providing training. And, catering to this, there is an emergence of software development by IT vendors. Going beyond, it is clear that stakeholders need to focus their attention on achieving integration of technology, process and people as the next stage of development. It is recommended that appropriate strategies be put in place.

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Full text: content.pdf (28,476 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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