Classification of building information – European and IT systems
Organisation of the information needed to design, construct and manage a building is still based upon traditional trades and classification tables. European countries have established sources of information: specifications, element tables and product databases, based on categories, such as SfB, defined 50 years ago. The Danish Centrecontract on Building Classification is following projects in several other countries, to update its systems, provide greater integration of data, and keep up with new information technologies. This paper presents experience from studying developments in several countries, relating them to the needs of Denmark, and anticipating the future demands of IT.
The possibilities with IT for more flexible searches on advanced representations of building entities require fundamental changes in integrating, exchanging and accessing information. There is a proliferation of web portals and project webs, and some common structure that relates to international practice is needed. Methods of searching are changing from traditional categories to full text and structured keywords. New methods of representing building data such as the IFCs and XML are having a major influence alongside standards for building data. The Centrecontract is relating these to the current practice in many types of firm in the Danish building industry.
The Centrecontract is due for completion in 2002 but the research being carried out by DTU will be presented at the end of 2000 and 2001. The broad objectives are for the partners to develop tools for building elements, schedules of rates and product classification, within a common framework, and to promote these and provide education. The research has defined the needs of Danish industry, is learning from experience in other countries, and will predict the likely influence of IT developments in future. This paper reports on some of the information systems being developed in other countries.
The approach taken was to talk to experts rather than to collect new statistical information. In each country at least one developer of new information systems was interviewed, one researcher and one user organisation. They were asked about the systems currently used in their country, new systems being developed, and any experience of their use. They were also asked about how changes had been, or could be, made in the general organisation of information about building. Relevant standards and the many building information services on the Web were also studied to find the common elements, and see how Denmark could develop systems to suit local needs.
Some preliminary findings
Factors from Denmark include the need to link to the familiar SfB system, using the same structure right through the process, the importance of the client and resistance to standards. Other countries studied so far are developing improved systems, with Sweden leading the way with BSAB 96, the UK with Uniclass to unite its different classification systems, and Holland and Norway proposing Lexicon and BARBI respectively. Common factors are the list of tables defined in ISO 12006-2, the work of EPIC in product classification, the influence of the IFCs and the use of the Web and XML. This work will be completed at the end of 2000 and recommendations made to the other partners in the Centrecontract for the systems that will help meet the needs of the Danish building industry.
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Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.092484)
Sound: read aloud.
Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.
Kathryn Davies, Suzanne Wilkinson and Dermott Mcmeel
Baby Steps with BIM Đ Learning to Walk the Talk
Abstract: Although there is a great deal of enthusiasm reported for companies to adopt BIM for improved project outcomes and industry productivity, the process of developing BIM expertise is not always an easy one. Project teams frequently come together with a very wide range of knowledge and differing levels of enthusiasm for taking on a BIM ÔexperimentŐ. This paper details the BIM implementation process on two New Zealand projects undertaking BIM with largely inexperienced teams. Interviews were carried out with practitioners involved in the projects, who were largely ŇBIM positiveÓ. Their narratives present an optimistic view of the BIM intentions, while still being realistic about problems that emerged. Issues for future consideration are identified. Most revolve around team communication factors and the importance of open and constructive relationships with all parties.
Keywords: BIM, Adoption, Implementation, Case Study
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Robert Klinc, Ziga Turk, Matevz Dolenc
Development of Decentralized Information and Communication System for AEC
Abstract: During the transition from traditional to ICT supported engineering communication and collaboration, the type of interaction between AEC project collaborators changed. A thorough review of a number of national and European projects shows that the topology of interaction evolved from the traditional fully interconnected model where people talk to each other directly to the centralized, star shaped model where collaborators talk to each other through the intermediary. Star model with central point of interaction offers a more efficient and less complex way to manage communication, although it affects the way professionals work, as it does not support core engineering processes and tasks but forces new ones. In that way, professionals are determined by the technology they use.Nonetheless, current trends in ICT are encouraging because they focus mainly on people and processes and less on technology. The tipping point for the (engineering) communication and collaboration came with the popularity of web 2.0 and widespread social networks that are by their nature mostly decentralized. Fast emerging social networking applications are becoming the preferred method of communication in personal as well as in business environment. From the technological point of view, newly developed solutions are focused towards SaaS model and especially cloud computing.The paper provides an overview of characteristics of the engineering communication and collaboration as well as the ICT technologies that shaped the AEC environment. In addition, key technological trends are outlined, system architecture is proposed and ICT communication system prototype presented.
Keywords: communication, collaboration, Web 2.0, informal communication systems
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What makes and doesn't make a 'killer app' in civil engineering: a retrospective evaluation
Abstract: Every software developer, from the individual amateur to the largest enterprise, dreams of giving rise to a “killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) that is so useful or desirable that it proves the value of some under-lying technology”1. Whether the ‘killer app’ provides financial benefits either to the developer or the hardware platform vendor is beside the point. The important thing is the professional or social component: a true ‘killer app’ radically alters some form of human activity, either by creating an activity that did not exist before, or by im-proving the performance of an activity so dramatically that its practitioners view it as a revolutionary change. The first set of ‘killer apps’ so named, the early spread-sheet programs VisiCalc and Lotus 1-2-3, certainly revo-lutionized finance, accounting, engineering and many other professional disciplines. These programs, in fact, engendered the pursuit of the dream referred to above.
The title of the talk is not “How to create a killer app in Civil Engineering” but “What makes and doesn't make a killer app in Civil Engineering.” Forecasting is always a tough art. Given the wide range of human activities, it is even tougher to predict what tool will radically alter one such activity. Retrospective appraisal is much easier: you just need to evaluate what happened and attempt to trace from causes to consequences. Furthermore, because of the rarity of ‘killer apps’ generally, and in civil engineering particularly, it is not possible to treat the subject in any generic way; it can only be treated by evaluating exam-ples and attempting to generalize from them.
Keywords: Killer applications, civil engineering, structural analysis
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Zhou W,Tah J,Heesom D
A distributed virtual reality application framework for collaborative construction planning using Bimserver
Abstract: As the architecture/engineering/construction (AEC) industry proceeds in the direction of digitalisation, computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) enhanced by building information modelling (BIM) becomes realistic for multidisciplinary collaboration in construction. Networked virtual reality (VR) supported by BIM servers, though showing great potentials in connecting multidisciplinary teamwork, is still less clarified for geographically dispersed construction teams to achieve collaboration. Taking the advantages of networked VR through the BIM server connection, this paper discusses a BIMserver-based VR application framework for distributed teams to perform real-time collaborative 4D construction planning and simulation. Through the analysis of current 4D modelling approaches, BIMserver adoption for collaborative 4D planning, as well as enabled VR platform technologies, the paper highlights availabilities of the interactive definition method for collaborative 4D planning underpinned by BIMserver. This method supports CSCW activities like co-navigate, so-sort, co-plan, co-simulate and co-talk for the 4D planning teamwork, together with power wall based semi-immersive VR platform for accommodating group users. On the basis of these discussions, a BIM-VR groupware system named Co-Studio is depicted from system architecture and application features. These discussions lay a foundation to develop a full functioned Co-Studio system as a next step. The system’s applicability will be verified and validated in its subsequent implementation and industry projects.
Keywords: BIMserver,collaborative 4D planning,groupware,virtual reality
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