Can Ersen F?rat, Juhani Kiiras, Kalle Kähkönen, Pekka Huovinen
Model based scheduling in building projects – is it oxymoron?
Abstract: In building, most projects are still planned and scheduled based on the randomly accumulated, contextual experience among planners and managers. The key inputs for scheduling tasks, i.e. the dependencies, man-hours, and durations of activities may have never been organized well in the focal planner’s mind. The aim of the paper is to intro-duce some new viable ways of modeling scheduling activities in the context of building based on the integration of a product model, a process model, and complementary IT solutions. The integrative rationale of the new Building Con-struction Information Model (BCIM) is herein justified in terms of combining the building product model, the building construction resource and cost model, and the building construction process model. Some new feasible ways of auto-mating building project planning are explored, in particular in terms of using template schedules to automate schedul-ing activities as part of the advancement and exploitation of the suggested BCIM.
Keywords: building projects, information technology, modeling, process models, product models, scheduling
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Couzens A, Thorpe T, Skitmore M
Executive information system for construction contract ridding decisions
Abstract: This paper describes the development of an integrated Executive
Information System (EIS) for supporting construction executives and senior
managers strategic information requirements. The system focuses on the
provision of organisational and external market information for contract
bidding decisions. The system uses a proprietary microcomputer based EIS
development environment to access ' synthetic ' data structures representing
the LAN architecture of a typical construction firm. This paper explains the
theory and technologies related to the development of such systems. This is
followed by a general discussion of the analysis techniques adopted for
development and definition of the system. The bulk of the paper relates to
a description of the proposed prototype system and its application. The
system itself serves as a nucleus for access to a variety of data providing
strategic information for contract bidding decisions. The development
methodologies and the resulting prototype serve as a template for
development of similar EIS and Visual Information Access (VIA) systems in
a wider executive and senior manager information support role.
Keywords: contract bidding; tender adjudication; strategic information; executive support
system; information scanning
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.
Fischer M A, Luiten G T B, Aalami F
Representing project information and construction method knowledge for computer- aided construction management
Abstract: Currently available construction management software has serious
limitations that hinder further integration and automation of construction management tasks.
The main limitation is the low level at which project information and knowledge is
represented. This means that integration of design and construction planning information
and automated reasoning about, for example, planning, are difficult to implement. In two
research projects at the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering at Stanford University,
we are addressing these limitations. In the SPACECAKE project we propose a higher level
representation of project information that explicitly represents the relations between
products, activities, construction methods and resources. A prototype system shows that it
is possible to implement our conceptual model and support project management decisions.
In the MOCA project we elaborate further on the representation of construction method
knowledge. In this paper we propose a template to make the knowledge explicit and
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Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.016915)
class.software development (0.008872)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.
A generic construction process modelling method
Abstract: A variety of modelling methods has been used to model
construction processes and projects, either during normal project
planning or for process re-engineering efforts or research. One
common method, which is widely used by construction industry
practitioners, is scheduling. In addition to schedules, some
companies have used a simple box-and-arrow method, which
graphically resembles schedules, for analysing their working
processes. More formal methods such as IDEF0 have been used
in re-engineering projects and by researchers. All these methods
are limited in scope and cannot be used to model all the aspects
of the processes that practitioners are interested in.
A new generic construction process modelling method, GEPM,
was developed to overcome the deficiencies of the current
methods. GEPM uses object-oriented principles, and has
borrowed features, such as activity, task, and temporal
dependency, from methods like IDEF0 and scheduling. GEPM is
flexible in the sense that the conceptual model can be changed to
achieve additional special features. This capability is also
supported by the database implementation, which enables users
to interact with the developed process models through views that
represent partial models. The views support the IDEF0,
scheduling, and simple flow methods. There are, though, rules for
how to convert between the partial models through views.
The evaluation of GEPM showed that more modelling features,
i.e. modelling power, are obtained in comparison with the earlier
methods. One of the essential features of GEPM is the
distinction between activities and tasks. Activities define how an
action will be carried out, generally using predetermined inputs to
achieve a predetermined output, whereas tasks are activities with
additionally specified starting and finishing times, duration and
location. Moreover, a task has a type-attribute that refers to an
activity where its overall template is defined.
Before the actual evaluation, case material from a real project
was preliminarily tested with GEPM along with the prototype
application. It turned out that some additions were needed to the
conceptual model of GEPM and to the prototype application.
GEPM can be used for process improvement, process
management, and for enhancing communication in a construction
process. One usage scenario for GEPM is to define quality
systems and reference models, using the activity sub-model and
storing the results in the GEPM database. A project-specific
model can be derived from the reference model using conversion
rules, and it eventually turns into a project specific-schedule with
Keywords: Process model, IDEF0, Construction
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Raimar J.Scherer, Wael Sharmak
Generic Process Template Description for the Effect of Risks on Project Schedule
Abstract: Many factors impact construction projects and cause changes in the project management plans. These factors can be considered as risks which are impossible to be identified completely in early project stages. Therefore, risk management in construction requires proactive as well as reactive procedures. Risk treatment, among the other risk management subprocesses, has the concrete change action which may modify one or more of the project management plans. In this paper, process modeling techniques are used to describe risk treatment effect on the structure of the project schedule plan. This structural change description is introduced as formalized configurable treatment templates. According to our findings seven generalized templates are efficient to represent the risk part in project reference models concerning process changes which in turn can be tailored and assembled to form up-to-date schedule plans. This kind of risk representation in reference repository will serve as means of knowledge management by providing all risk-related available information as response to a critical event. The Event-driven process Chains (EPC) will be used to model risk treatment templates using normal and configurable EPC elements.
Keywords: Process Modeling, Risk Treatment, Configuration, EPC
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