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Alina Delgado, Frank DeTroyer

Process Model for Understanding Stakeholders Expectations in New Projects Development

Abstract: There is in construction a fundamental change in the making and delivering of successful new projects: the focus shifts towards value adding for projects based on a better understanding of stakeholders expectations. The process of modelling this new paradigm in construction will put “the creation of value in the eyes of the client”, central in the development of new projects. This paper describes a model that is designed to help stakeholders to achieve their expectations regarding urban and housing projects. The process of integrating different sub-models (costs and qualities) is examined and includes quality evaluations based on people’s preferences and willingness to pay. The model is developed through a methodological pluralism, identifying people-oriented variables. The different parts of the model are described, besides data requirements for each part. The development of the model was based on a case study carried out on the city of Guayaquil-Ecuador. Information obtained from a field work research was used for testing of the model. The study examines implications and limitations of the use of the model for inclusion of stakeholders. The paper concludes with findings regarding the identification of most preferred attributes by housing users and the use of alternatives methods to incorporated additional value to the projects, translated in more appealing profits for developers and the provision of better and affordable houses for the users.

Keywords: urban process model, stakeholders, value, profitability, affordability

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Andresen J, Baldwin A, Betts M, Carter C, Hamilton A, Stokes E, Thorpe T

A Framework for Measuring IT Innovation Benefits

Abstract: This paper presents a new framework for measuring the benefits of IT in construction. The framework is based on the principle that benefits realisation must be managed by: planning for strategic alignment and business-driven exploitation, managing the process of predicting benefits, and by measuring resulting benefits after a system or innovation is implemented. Three distinct types of benefits are identified within the new framework associated with business efficiency, business effectiveness and business performance. A key barrier to the more effective exploitation and application of IT in the construction sector has been the lack of investment on a scale comparable with other sectors. A primary reason cited for the low level of investment is the low level of perceived benefits from IT investments amongst construction business managers. Many benefits evaluation methods exist and are widely applied in other sectors. Benefits evaluation methods in construction are under-utilised. One reason for this is the lack of fit between these methods, and their associated language, with the peculiarities of the construction sector. The new framework presented in this paper has been derived for specific application to the construction sector. The framework has been subjected to testing and application within UK construction organisations. The results of this testing suggest a number of improvements in the benefits realisation process.

Keywords: information technology, business benefits, innovation, evaluation framework

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2000/4 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2000 (browse)
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Bjork B C, Lownertr K, Kiviniemi A

IS0 13567 - the proposed international standard for structuring layers in computer aided building design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. Recently IS0 has defined a draft international standard, ISOlDlS 13567, in order to increase interoperability betwen different CAD applications for building design. The principles which have been followed in the design of the draft standard are first presented, after which the paper describes the semantical organisation of the standard proposal and its default syntax. Pilot testing of IS0 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries, which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the paper two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Bjork B C, Lownertz K, Kiviniemi A

ISO 13567 - the proposed international standard for structuring layers in computer aided building design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. During the last few years national standardisation organisations, professional association, user groups for particular CAD-systems, individual companies etc. have issued numerous standards and guidelines for the naming and structuring of layers in building design. Recently ISO has defined a draft international standard, ISO/DIS 13567, in order to increase interoperability betwen different CAD applications for building design.The principles which have been followed in the design of the draft standard are first presented, after which the paper describes the semantical organisation of the standard proposal and its default syntax. Important mandatory information categories deal with the party responsible for the information, the type of building element shown, and whether a layer contains the direct graphical description of a building part or additional information needed in an output drawing etc. Non-mandatory information categories facilitate the structuring of information in rebuilding projects, use of layers for spatial grouping in large multi-storey projects, and storing multiple representations intended for different drawing scales in the same model etc.Pilot testing of ISO 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the paper two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of the possible benefits of the standard. Incremental development within the industry, is contrasted with the more idealistic scenario of building product models.

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Full text: content.pdf (442,818 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
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Class: class.standards (0.048516) class.synthesis (0.043906) class.represent (0.015610)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Bjrk B-C, Lwnertz K, Kiviniemi A

ISO DIS 13567 - The Proposed International Standard for Structuring Layers in Computer Aided Building Design

Abstract: Layering is a widely used method for structuring data in CAD-models. During the last few years national standardisation organisations, professional associations, user groups for particular CAD-systems, individual companies etc. have issued numerous standards and guidelines for the naming and structuring of layers in building design. In order to increase the integration of CAD data in the industry as a whole ISO recently decided to define an international standard for layer usage. The resulting standard proposal, ISO 13567, is a rather complex framework standard which strives to be more of a union than the least common denominator of the capabilities of existing guidelines. A number of principles have been followed in the design of the proposal. The first one is the separation of the conceptual organisation of information (semantics) from the way this information is coded (syntax). The second one is orthogonality - the fact that many ways of classifying information are independent of each other and can be applied in combinations. The third overriding principle is the reuse of existing national or international standards whenever appropriate. The fourth principle allows users to apply well-defined subsets of the overall superset of possible layernames. This article describes the semantic organisation of the standard proposal as well as its default syntax. Important information categories deal with the party responsible for the information, the type of building element shown, whether a layer contains the direct graphical description of a building part or additional information needed in an output drawing etc. Non-mandatory information categories facilitate the structuring of information in rebuilding projects, use of layers for spatial grouping in large multi-storey projects, and storing multiple representations intended for different drawing scales in the same model. Pilot testing of ISO 13567 is currently being carried out in a number of countries which have been involved in the definition of the standard. In the article two implementations, which have been carried out independently in Sweden and Finland, are described. The article concludes with a discussion of the benefits and possible drawbacks of the standard. Incremental development within the industry, (where ”best practice” can become ”common practice” via a standard such as ISO 13567), is contrasted with the more idealistic scenario of building product models. The relationship between CAD-layering, document management product modelling and building element classification is also discussed.

Keywords: CAD-system, layering, standardisation

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1997/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1997 (browse)
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Bowden S, Thorpe A, Baldwin A

Usability testing of hand held computing on a construction site

Abstract: Unless current hand-held computers are found to be usable by site-based personnel the uptake of these new systems will be slow regardless the benefits available to these individuals and the project team as a whole. The technology to extend IT solutions to personnel in the field is available, but there is a preconception that site personnel are not IT literate and therefore will not be able, or willing, to take full advantage of the benefits that IT tools bring. This paper presents a methodology for assessing usability, describes the usability testing of hand held computers by site workers and concludes that this type of device will meet their needs.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Cheung S O, Au-Yeung R F, Wong V W K

A CBR based dispute resolution process selection system

Abstract: In construction, the use of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) to assist project management in the areas of planning, quantity measurement and quality control have been reported. A.I. can minimize subjectivity which would otherwise predominate in many management decisions, one of which is the selection of a method to resolve disputes. Disputes in construction are common and resolving them has become a daily routine of project managers. Despite its importance, the use of A.I. in dispute resolution has not been extensive. Employing an appropriate resolution process is critical to resolve construction disputes. This is because that having an appropriate resolution process should pave the path to success. In this type of selection exercise, previous experience is invaluable and thus fits nicely with the function of Case-Based Reasoning technique. Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) can systematically select a dispute resolution process to fit the circumstances of a case. This paper describes the development of a CBR based dispute resolution process selection system identified as CDRe. Forty eight cases were used to develop the system which was tested by another 9 independent cases. Seventy seven percent prediction accuracy for the testing set was achieved suggesting that the CDRe is a reasonable decision support tool for project managers.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, construction dispute resolution, case-based reasoning

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Eilif Hjelseth, Nick Nisbet

Exploring Semantic Based Model Checking

Abstract: This paper is exploring the foundation of semantic based model checking concepts. Development of computable rules in a pure semantic based concept is characterized by “soft coding” by following a pre-defined system (mark-up) methodology for linguistic (text and numbers) analyze, organization, execution and reporting. The software programming of this can be done automatic or semi-automatic based on predefined procedures. This enables an AEC skilled person to develop applicable rules without support of programmers. The rules can be applied on then semantic content BIM file in e.g. IFC format.Whether it is possible to develop a valid and reliable system applicable to rule sources (laws, codes, standards) depends on testing two key hypothesis:The use perspective is basis for the first hypothesis: Can a pre-defined semantic system or toolset be used (by an AEC skilled person, not software programmer) on the variation of how rule sources are expressed. The answer on this is based on the constraints of the systems. Negative experiences by Artificial Intelligence based on natural language and the ambiguity in the language itself (Sowa, 2000 and 2006) indicates that there is not a straight forward procedure. Introduction of prerequisite and constraints indicate that trustworthy results are possible (Hjelseth, 2009 and Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009). Whether this will result in too limited area of application is discussed. The ISO/DIS 21542 standard for accessibility and usability will be used as case.The second hypothesis is: A system for automatic, or semi-automatic, generating of applicable rule sets for software implementation can be developed. This must rely on the applicability link predefine commands to adjacent actions for the semantic analyses. Limitations and possibilities will be in focus.A thorough perspective will be about challenges above are related to ICT-systems or the complexity of the semantic of world itself.References: Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009. Standardized computable rules. Pilot study of methods for development of computable rules Project at Standards Norway, http://www.standard.no/en/Sectors/Bygg-og-anlegg/Digital-byggeprosess/ISO-BIM-standards/Computable-rule-project/ (Visited: 2010-04-01). ISO/DIS 21542 Building Construction, Accessibility and usability of the built environmentISO standard under development of ISO committee TC 59/SC 16 http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees/list_of_iso_technical_committees/iso_technical_committee.htm?commid=291991 (Visited: 2010-04-01). Hjelseth, E. 2009. Foundation for development of computable rules. Presented at CIB-W78, Turkey, Istanbul, Oct. 1-3th 2009. http://www.optima.no/BIM/PhD_Eilif_Hjelseth/Eilif_Hjelseth_UMB-Norway_Paper_73_CIB-W78_2009.pdf (Visited: 2010-04-01).Sowa, J. F. 2000. Knowledge representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational foundations, Thomson Learning. ISBN 0 534-94965-7

Keywords: Model checking, semantic, BIM, IFC

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Fahim Al-Neshawy, Jukka Piironen, Jari Puttonen, Tomi Laurila, Vesa Vuorinen, Mika Makitalo

The Use of ICT for Monitoring the Hygrothermal Behaviour of Building Structures

Abstract: Temperature and moisture are two of the main factors in physical, chemical and biological deterioration of building materials. Thermal gradients and movement of moisture in materials used in buildings typically cause deterioration of structures. The continuous monitoring of temperature and relative humidity provides valuable information about the long-term performance and deterioration of building structures. Documenting performance through monitoring can greatly enhance the understanding of the long-term degradation of building materials and the deterioration of the constructions due aging.The aim of this study is to develop a computerized monitoring system for building structures and test the reliability of the monitoring sensors. The study is focused on concrete building structures and consists of laboratory work and field measurements. The laboratory work focuses on designing a monitoring network system, developing a monitoring software application, assessing the reliability of the monitoring sensors, and testing of the moisture and thermally induced deterioration of concrete. The field measurements are carried out by monitoring the temperature and relative humidity of three repaired concrete facades as well as selected structures of a new school construction.The deliverable of the study will consist of two applications: (i) collecting of the moisture and thermal monitoring data and (ii) assessing the performance of building structures based on the acquired information. The results of the research will provide feasible methodologies and systems for monitoring and assessing the performance of building constructions, thus improving the quality of the final product. The scientific relevance of this research will be the improved correspondence between laboratory studies and observations of deterioration in practice.

Keywords: thermal, moisture, monitoring, assessment, building materials, sensor technology

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

DESIGNING A WEB BASED E-LEARNING SYSTEM FOR THE FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY YOLA

Abstract: During the last decade, the Web has changed from a simple hyper textual repository of documents to a powerful communication media. This shift has made Web applications highly suitable for the support of educational activities, which often include collaborative sessions. Although educational institutions are by nature conservative and can be resistant to reform, the collective influence of an increase in the number of networked computers, improved teacher training, and the impetus of a transformed culture in wider society are likely to lead to a reconsideration of the nature of education. The traditional emphasis on print in educational system is likely to be challenged by a range of screen-based and telecommunications mediums. Thus, this thesis proposes the design of a web-enabled Learning Management System FRANKSTWEBS - built with the latest generation web technologies for FUTY. Modular, scaleable, and easy to implement and learn, one can track and manage any type of learning asset from online training, assessment, testing and corporate web sessions to classroom-based training.

Keywords: Elearning, Website, Design, Designing, Intranet, Internet, ICT, Information Technology, Web based, System, Federal University of Technology Yola, FUTY, FUT Yola

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