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B de Vries

Building management simulation center

Abstract: Introduction to the BMSC In the Building Management Simulation Center new and experienced construction managers are trained. The center is unique because of the use of a virtual building site that can be inspected by the trainees. The actual status of the building and of the building materials and equipment on the building site is simulated by the system dependent on the trainee’s actions. The main part of the center is the simulation hall. Here, ten cabins are located with a view on a large parabolic projection screen. The trainee has to execute tasks in the cabin in an environment that is familiar to him/her. On the projection screen the building under construction can be viewed and it can be inspected by navigation through the full-scale model. Similar VR based training systems can be found in the aircraft industry, the automotive industry [http://www.ttsl.co.uk/home.htm] en de shipbuilding industry [http://thor.sv.vt.edu/crane/]. These examples inspired the initiators of the BMSC to investigate if the same methodology could be used in the building industry. Building site activity patterns Construction process simulation research has mainly been focused on the development of a construction planning analysis tool [e.g. V.R. Kamat, J.C. Martinez in proceedings of CIT2000]. In the BMSC though, interaction between the construction manager and the building on the building site will steer the construction process simulation. Investigations on the building site and discussions with experienced construction managers learned that they work in fixed patterns. A pattern consisting of a list of activities is called a transition type. These transition types describe all kinds of procedures that a construction manager performs to fulfill a specific tasks (e.g. ordering of new material). Transition types also take into account actions required to perform corrections beforehand or afterwards. For a specific case the transitions were entered into the system. The transitions were deduced from the construction managers that had worked on that building project when it was actually built. For the training purposes every possible situation the trainee can end up with has to be covered by the transitions. The interactive 3D training system The trainee’s actions are logged by a kind of Electronic Data Management System. All documents that are created during a training session are stored in the system. The system itself also contains project information that can be consulted. Finally the system offers an interface to communicate with the other participants in the project. After the training session that consists of the execution of a set of tasks, the system has stored all actions, their order and the produced documents. These data are compared with the predefined transitions for the case that was used. The document contents are compared with the predefined activity results. With this method it is easy to detect if the trainee missed certain activities in a transition and if the information is consistent. Finally, a visual feedback can be created be regeneration the 3D model in the VR environment in accordance with the trainee’s actions. The 3D model will show has far the building could have been built successfully. The learning effect After the training session the trainee will be confronted with the (possible) mismatch between has own actions and the preferred actions following from the predefined transitions. Evidently this is discussed during the evaluation after the training. Recognition of the right transition by the trainee to solve a specific task is considered one of the major learning effects of a BMSC training. Paper Outline In the paper the software architecture of the system will be explained. The activity patterns and the management of the system are discussed in more detail. A layout of the building where the BMSC is hosted is presented. Finally some examples of the training sessions will illustrate how the BMSC operates in practice and an overview will be presented of the first experiences.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,053,282 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.027827) class.man-software (0.018630) class.communication (0.013308)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


B Otjacques & F Feltz

Characterizing the visualization techniques of project-related interactions

Abstract: All construction projects can be considered as cooperative undertakings. Their strategic management as well as the daily operations causes numerous interactions to occur, either among persons or among persons and resources. These interactions have been studied from various viewpoints but few researchers have focused on their visualization. The graphical representation of the cooperation is however a powerful tool to help the project participants to get a correct understanding of the situation. This paper proposes thus a structuring framework (IVF - Interaction Visualization Framework) of the visualization techniques used to display such interactions. Three basic axes of classification are used to structure the study. Which objects are visualized? Why are they visualized? How are they visualized? For each axis, several properties have been identified and the admitted values have been specified. This work can be considered as a first step towards a structured view of the 'visualization of cooperation' domain.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Bengt H, Landin A

Computer aided development of knowledge in the construction process

Abstract: Many of the failures in the construction process occur due to a lack of information and knowledge. The problem is not solely that the information demanded and knowledge are lacking, it can as well be the opposite. In other words, there is too much information available. The problem is usually to give the site manager and others involved in the construction process the necessary information when they are receptive to it. This research project is accomplished with a computer aided system for the development of knowledge in the construction process, in order to study the possibilities and problems with a computer aided system.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,445,431 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.040363) class.bestPractise (0.013025) class.education (0.008732)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Berg Von Linde, Richard

Making Process Models Usable

Abstract: Process models have several fields of application. THe research community of construction IT has used process modelling methodologies for several years to analyse and share information. The construction industry has applied process modelling, among other things to better understand current business, to improve or innovate business and to create information systems that support business. Developing a business by using process models needs usable process models. This licentiate thesis describes how process mdels presented in a computer environment can be made usable to practitioners of the construction industry. A structure of concepts is developed that describes interactive environments for process models. The concepts are of two different types: objects and actions. Objects are components that carry the information, and they are not examined in this research. Twelve different actions are identified in the thesis: overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, decompose, relate, history, extract, browse, search, compare and find. Based on the concepts developed a prototype is developed. An authentic model built according to the IDEF0 process modelling method is displayed in the prototype. Finally, a usability study is performed to gain knowledge about the concepts and their implementation in the prototype.

Keywords: Process model, User interface, IDEF0

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Bergsten S, Knutsson M

4D CAD- an efficient tool to improve production method for integration of apartments in existing buildings

Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research project on application of a 4D CAD tool for design and production planning of vertical extensions of existing buildings (over-roofing) in Stockholm city, for creation of a more densely populated city as the demand for apartments in the city centre increases. 4D CAD is a concept, which combines an object oriented 3D CAD model with time. 4D CAD is a kind of information visualisation that is easier to understand than traditional methods, such as 2D drawings and time schedules, which are used to manage construction projects. 4D CAD is a logical way of imaging a construction management tool. It is a tool that is conceptually much closer to an intuitive picture of a construction process than 2D drawings and time schedules. The 4D concept is developed at Stanford University and to support the concept researchers at Stanford have developed a prototype that is being used in some complex construction projects in California. The focus of the research project “Integration of apartments in existing buildings by use of Light Gauge Steel Framing”, which this paper is a part of it, is to improve production methods in order to reduce design, planning and construction time for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings in the city centres. A way to improve the production methods is by utilising a 4D planning process in combination with industrialised production of building components. Extensions to existing buildings are due to the demand for new apartments in attractive locations in the city centres and shortage of land for housing in city centres. The Light Gauge Steel constructions have many benefits for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings. According to research results the Light Gauge Steel Framing system is suitable for industrial production. This building system results in a very light weight building compared with traditional materials e.g. concrete which makes it suitable for over-roofing extensions. The materials used in the Light Gauge Steel Systems is thin steel members, plaster boards and mineral wool. Many of the problems, which occur during vertical extensions of existing buildings today, are solved when they are discovered, that is sometimes on the site. Some examples of these problems are poor compatibility between the existing building (structural components and material) and the Light Gauge Steel Framing, detail solutions of the building components, shafts and piping for ventilation, water, sewage and drainage etc. It is less expensive to discover and to correct errors at an early stage compared to solving them on the site. Further a lot of construction time will be saved, which will decrease the disturbance on existing surroundings. Several problems have to be considered in the planning process in order to minimise the disturbance on existing activities and surroundings. This could be done by the use of a 4D CAD planning tool. An over-roofing project located in the city means that the land to use during the production period is limited and expensive. Thereby is the logistic to and from the site more complicated. Consequently the site management and logistic of building components to the building site and their storage on the site is most important. In fact the 4D concept is an efficient planning tool to organise the logistic of the site during the planning phase instead of as today during the production. The site layout can be simulated and visualised with a 4D CAD tool for the actors in the project which in particular will help the site engineer to organise the activities, material flow and site logistic. The value of using the 4D CAD concept is studied by comparing the traditional planning process of a number of over-roofing projects in Sweden with the planning process of the 4D CAD concept. This paper discusses how a 4D CAD tool together with an industrialised production method can be used for improving the production process for an over-roofing project in order to reduce the construction time and with secured quality. The reader will understand and appreciate the added value in form of a more efficient way of managing construction projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (708,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.022264) class.impact (0.010607) class.software development (0.010605)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bharat D

Building industry and the agents of change

Abstract: The infornmtion technology and the changes it brings about are recent and evolving phenomena. In the absence of established historical perspectives, many previous studies have focused on the information technology issues that are of only immediate concern to the building industry and thus provide only limited perspectives. In this paper, we suggest that it is an appropriate time to look beyond the technological bottlenecks such as incompatibility of software or hardware, prohibitive resource investments, and others that are often cited as the reasons impeding applications of the information technology in the building industry. With the new developments taking place in the information technology, the gradual and paced changes in the building industry organizations will be rephced by changes with a bigger scope and a higher momentum. These changes will not result in simply a new breed of professionals who become another discrete part of the web comprising the building industry; they will affect the very web defining the building industry. Additionally, the technological developments that will bring about such changes are presently being carried out by forces external to the building irtdustty thus further obscuring their potential impacts. Five key information technology advances are submitted here as the agents of significant change in future: networks, groupware, robotics, flexible manufacturing, and microprocessor embedded building components. It is argued that the building industry needs to expand the debate about the role of the information technology by taking account of developments which presently lie outside its immediate and traditional concern. The paper initiates this discussion and describes a number of likely impacts of the new technology on the educational, professional and organizational spheres in the building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,994,845 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.050231) class.environment (0.047416) class.man-man (0.024687)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bingfei Zhang and Zhenhua Zhu

Vision-Based Detection of Falls at Flat Level Surfaces

Abstract: Workers might experience fall accidents even when they are working at flat level surfaces. These accidents plus other types of fall accidents have been reported as one of the major causes for worker-related fatalities and injuries. Currently, it becomes common to set up video cameras to monitor working environments. The video cameras provide an alternative to detect fall accidents. The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of detecting fall accidents of workers with video. The preliminary focus is put on the fall detection under one single monocular camera. A novel fall detection method is proposed. Under the method, workers in the videos captured by the video cameras are first detected and tracked. Their pose and shape related features are then extracted. Given a set of features, an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is further trained to automatically determine whether a fall happens. The method has been tested and the detection precision and recall were used to evaluate the method. The test results with high detection precision and recall indicated the method effectiveness. Also, the lessons and findings from this research are expected to build a solid foundation to create a vision-based fall detection solution for safety engineers.

Keywords: Fall Detection, Video Processing, Computer Vision, Safety Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0198

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Bjork B C, Turk Z

Scientific publishing at the crossroads - a case study of the impact of the internet on the construction IT and construction management research communities

Abstract: Electronic communication is changing the ways of scientific information exchange. We all witness it and practise it by using the Web, communicating over email and videoconferencing, however, what the implications of these change ares, how they quantify in scientific research, is not known. A survey in the fields of construction IT (2/3 of respondents) and management (1/5 of respondents) was conducted in February 2000, that sheds some light one these questions. The questions dealt with how researchers find, access and read different sources, how much and what they read, how often and which conferences they travel to, how much they publish, how they choose where to publish. Questions dealt with traditional and electronic publishing with one final section dedicated to opinions about electronic publishing. The shift that the web is achieving seems to be towards the "just in time" reading of literature. Also, users of the Web rely less on scientific publications and tend to read fewer articles. If readily available, journals are preferred, if not, the articles should be on the Web. People don't want to go into trouble of subscribing or even going to the library to fetch a paper - they go to the Web.The situation does not look good for new paper based journals. In these circumstances, the role of paper based journals published by established publishers is shifting from the core "information exchange" to the building of authors prestige. To be read, the author should build up his reputation by publishing in journals and relevant conferences, but then make his work freely available on the Web.

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Full text: content.pdf (259,551 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.050039) class.man-man (0.049637) class.bestPractise (0.032954)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bjork B C

The impact of electronic document management on construction information management

Abstract: This paper deals with the introduction of electronic document management (EDM) technology in the construction industry, and our current research knowledge about this topic. EDM has the potential to enhance the information management in construction projects considerably, without radical changes to current practice. Over the past fifteen years this topic has been overshadowed by building product modelling in the construction IT research world, but at present EDM is quickly being introduced in practice, in particular in bigger projects. Often this is done in the form of third party ASP services available over the World Wide Web. In the paper a typology of research questions and methods is presented, which can be used to position the individual research efforts which are surveyed in the paper. Questions dealt with include: What features should EMD systems have? How much are they used? Are there benefits from use and how should these be measured? What are the barriers to wide-spread adoption? Which technical questions need to be solved? Is there scope for standardisation? How will the market for such systems evolve?

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Full text: content.pdf (84,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036219) class.environment (0.033025) class.impact (0.032159)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Bjornsson H, Lundegard R

Strategic Use of IT in Some European Construction Firms

Abstract: A study has been carried out in which a number of large construction firms in Europe have been investigated with regard to management thinking in the area of IT. There is a common understanding of the strategic importance of IT, but the means for using the technology strategically are not well developed. Some theoretical frameworks for analysing the firms studied have been developed based on earlier work done by management researchers. The project-oriented nature of construction may make it necessary to modify existing theories. It is believed that although these frameworks cannot be used directly in the strategy-writing process of a contractor, they can help create awareness and explain possible effects of various generic strategies. A number of problems arise in trying to compare strategies or investment patterns between different construction organizations. Some of these problems will be discussed together with some ways of coping with them. Some conclusions about similarities and differences in the management view of IT will be stated from an international perspective.

Keywords: strategic advantage; IT-strategy; corporate strategy; impact of IT, European construction

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Full text: content.pdf (907,284 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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