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Blackmore J, Leong F, Sharpe R, Williams P

CSIRO - Building the future down under

Abstract: Australia has recently unified technical building regulations throughout its eight states and territories. As technical adviser to theAustralian Building Regulations Co-ordinating Council (AUBRCC), CSIRODivision of Building, Construction and Engineering is heavily involved in the development of many aspects of building regulation. It offersadvice on the technical content, format and drafting of regulation, administers a national accreditation scheme and has developed commercially available interactive software to support the regulations. It is now developing a data base to access the background information used inall its regulation-related activities.

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Full text: content.pdf (995,244 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.086581) class.man-software (0.018202) class.synthesis (0.017892)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Brien M J O', Baig A

A semantically rich reference model for building design

Abstract: Much effort has been expended by software developers attempting to build databases suitable for use by those working within the construction industry. Various models from the original RATAS relational database model through to sophisticated process models have been proposed, developed and evaluated. It is probably fair to say that these research efforts have only recently begun to effect the practices of professional construction engineers. This, in part, is due to the need for more sophisticated systems. This paper describes a database that is usable throughout the design and construction processes in the construction industry. The method uses the well-established idea of generic components that can be combined to create a large scale artefact. The novelty of the approach described herein allows the components to embody facts and rules that allow design knowledge to be modelled, captured and retrieved. The facts and rules encapsulate not only the interactions of the various products but also the processes involved in their use. In effect, the atomic primitive elements (both components and rules) can be combined to create complex elements which are semantically rich. The basic ideas and fundamental philosophy of this approach have been described elsewhere. This paper is devoted to describing the detailed implementation of this approach. The content is technical and thorough; it describes how a passive relational database management system, Oracle, has been used to create a new metadata structure for the creation, control and management of the components - both simple and complex. In effect, the relational database becomes active. Thus, the database reacts to design decisions by firing rules which then govern the interaction of the components. The paper presents a detailed description of the underlying architecture and the data model which has been developed. The paper is interesting not only to construction engineers but also to software designers in that it shows how existing database models can be extended by using their predefined data types to create new, and more complex, ones. While this is an old, well-established trick, this application to a real-world problem is a good test of its viability. Finally, a brief review puts this particular approach into the context of the other myriad attempts to create product and process reference models with an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses.

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Full text: content.pdf (90,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.047518) class.man-software (0.016724) class.store (0.013661)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Bügler M,Dori G,Borrmann A

Swap based process schedule optimization using discrete-event simulation

Abstract: Large construction projects usually involve many tasks, which are connected through dependencies and usage of common resources and materials. Determining the optimal order of task execution is in most of the cases impossible to do by hand. Therefore different methods for automatic optimization of large process schedules using a discrete-event simulation system were investigated. This paper introduces a new heuristic method for the resource constrained project scheduling problem, called swap-based optimization. Compared to creating an optimal schedule from scratch, the swap approach facilitates obtaining metrics about the performance of the result, before having worked through the entire construction process. Swaps are introduced into the simulation model by assigning priorities to the tasks. After running a simulation a list of possible swaps is created. Applying one of them and restarting the simulation will introduce a change into the sequence of the tasks within the schedule, generating a different schedule than the one before. Different tree search algorithms, traversing the space of possible swaps throughout a construction process, were analyzed. The suitability of the method is proven by an extensive case study.

Keywords: Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem,Project Schedule Optimization,Discrete-event Simulation,Task Swaps,Construction Site,Tree search

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Full text: content.pdf (392,459 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Craig R. Dubler, John I. Messner

Evaluating the Value of Early Planning for Building Information Modeling using Lean Theory

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides a means for owners, designers, contractors, and operators to generate, organize and use detailed information throughout a project lifecycle. An important aspect to the success of BIM is the process in which information is exchanged between team members. In a theory, information should be both accessible and usable, when required. Because the AEC industry is project centered, and several companies work collaboratively towards the design and construction of a facility, the availability and accuracy of information can become constrained. BIM has the potential to improve the effectiveness of building design and construction; however, if the information exchange process is not planned early in the project, the benefits of using the authored data may be mitigated by process waste. This paper serves to evaluate the value associated with early team planning for BIM on two projects being constructed on the Penn State University campus; one which implemented a BIM planning procedure in the design phase. The rationale behind lean theory is to increase efficiency by eliminating waste, consequently increasing value. Therefore, lean principles were modified to establish categories of building information exchange waste. During the case study process actual information exchanges were captured using a process mapping technique. Once the information exchange process was documented, the data was analyzed using the seven types of waste: overproduction, inventory, extra processing, motivation, defects, waiting, and transportation. When applied to information management, these concepts provide a broad framework for an effective process for standardization. Future work includes analyzing the project and team traits for relationships with the information exchange waste. This information will provide additional insight to the value of early planning for Building Information Modeling by documenting the economic benefits that may be achieved by the industry if the information exchange process is developed early in design.

Keywords: BIM, Lean Thinking, Information Exchange, Knowledge Management

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Full text: content.pdf (195,781 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Dawood N, Sriprasert E, Mallasi Z, Hobbs B

Development of an integrated information resource base for 4D/VR construction process simulation and visualisation

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to report on the development of an integrated database to act as an information resource base for 4D/VR construction process simulation and visualisation. A comprehensive database was designed, implemented and populated with the School of Health Construction Project (An eight million pounds, three-storey development at the University of Teesside campus). The database is composed of a core database of building components which, in turn, is integrated with a CAD package (AutoCAD 2000), a project management package (MS Project) and graphical user interfaces. The core database was designed using the unified classification for the construction industry (Uniclass). One of the benefits of using the Uniclass method, apart from providing standards for structuring building information, is that it provides a media for integrating PBS (Product Breakdown Structure) with WBS (Work Breakdown Structure). This is an important aspect for delivering a meaningful 4D model. Integrated interfaces between MS Access Database, AutoCAD Drawings and MS Project Schedules were developed and implemented. Furthermore, the British Standards of layering convention (BS 1192-5) was adapted and implemented. The database was populated automatically with detailed product data directly from 2D or 3D drawings, schedules of work and resources of the School of Health Project. This paper is also addressing object definition, structuring the data, and establishing the relationships and dependencies within the data set, the WBS and building objects as well as modelling the building in 3D in order to capture the essential space- and time-critical attributes of tasks. Practical application of database throughout the construction process has been highlighted and discussed. A proposal for incorporating IFC model is also discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (306,608 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.044096) class.represent (0.019318) class.synthesis (0.018813)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Elger D, Russell P

Teaching knowledge management using distributed practice simulation

Abstract: The paper describes attempts by the authors to convey the importance of teamwork in architecture to students, be it in the process of architecture or the object itself. One of the main postulates of the work is that pedagogically, teamwork is better trained than taught. This is further compounded when the technological burden of distributed practice is introduced. Using Internet based communication technologies, the authors have sought to create a design studio environment that simulates real world situations where major planning partners are located in different cities and even different countries. Using experience gained over four years of networked studios, the authors were able to enrol five other universities for a semester-long experimental design studio. In essence, the students undertook to solve the design problem in teams spread over different universities. From 43 students, 14 teams (each with 3 members and one with 4 members) were assembled with no two students from the same university in the same team. Furthermore, each team was assigned a tutor from a fourth (or fifth) university. The different universities were far enough separated so as to preclude easy face to face meetings. Instead, the Internet was used as a communication medium. The entire range of available technologies was put to use. A central web site which logged user presence served as a virtual "place" where the students and tutors could meet to carry out informal discussions or arrange to transfer the discussions elsewhere (e.g. to a chat room or a videoconference). The web site platform also provided the entire group with supporting information such as personal diaries, common calendar functions, email lists and directories of student work. The students made their work available on the web throughout the semester in order to communicate with their tutor as well as with one another. Essential to the successful communication was an initial acquaintance session. This took the form of a 3-day workshop at the beginning of the semester. While this workshop ostensibly focussed on the design problem, it effectively served as a social engineering exercise in order to shake out compatibility among potential team members. After the workshop, the group met again 15 week later for a final review. Halfway through the semester, the individual teams travelled to their tutors for a mid-term review. Otherwise, all communication took place over the Internet (or through conventional telecommunication methods). The theme itself was certainly selfreferential: to design a centre for a virtual university. This cross-pollination of design method and design theme was an additional encumbrance for most students, but also provided a fertile bed for a wide range of design solutions. It is important to note that all of the teams were able to complete the assignment and postsemester questionnaires show an overwhelming positive reaction to the experimental studio, notwithstanding the high costs of travel and telephone. The paper discusses the feedback from the students and possible implications for future iterations of the concept.

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Full text: content.pdf (890,508 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.093221) class.social (0.038530) class.collaboration (0.035454)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Ercoskun K, Kanoglu A

Customer relationships management in AEC sector

Abstract: Quality is the major guide for enterprises in terms of competitive strength of organizations in the information age. While globalization increases its impact throughout the world, the term “Quality” expands its meaning and the cultural and social aspects of quality becomes the most important contributors of the product quality. The customer orientation of the finished product and after sales service is becoming vital in terms of marketing. Industrialized sectors had been providing solutions in that sense under the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles since the early 80’s. For the Architecture/Engineering/Construction (AEC) sector, several managerial tools and techniques has been adapted but these partial solutions do not perform well enough as they did success in other industrialized sectors. This is probably because the need for an enterprise-wide customer orientation infrastructure is not yet proposed. This paper discusses the early concepts about a “Customer Relationships Management” (CRM) model for the AEC sector which, CRM to be the foundation for TQM; issuing that CRM is the key enabler for any tool or technique towards quality and industrialization. .

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Full text: content.pdf (1,080,976 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Farinha M F

An educational tool in earthquake engineering

Abstract: "One of the main social purposes of education is the transmission of knowledge to the subsequent generations, in the most appropriate form. Throughout time, educators have resorted to the technologies at hand, in order to establish the best possible mechanisms for knowledge delivery. Increasing ease of access to computers and recent advances seen in information technologies now mean that these can be used as an important tool in the education process. The work that is presented in this paper is intended to demonstrate the potential of these systems in the understanding of the seismic phenomenon and in creating students’ awareness of the importance of the design of structural systems that will have a good performance under seismic conditions. The graphical presentation of vibration modes gives a clear understand of the structure’s behaviour. The main benefits that are expected are: i) to enhance the students’ interests on earthquake engineering; ii) to support students’ work so that they may become less dependent on the physical human presence, for tutoring and iii) to enable students to address more difficult and complex problems."

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Full text: content.pdf (896,203 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.048279) class.education (0.036006) class.analysis (0.026182)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Franklyn Chukwunonso

THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL EDUCATION IN AN INFORMATION SOCIETY

Abstract: The difficulty in understanding the future implications of new technologies in society is seen in the growth of the internet throughout the world, and in particular, in schools. As factors such as convergence, increased bandwidth, "edutainment", multitasking and changes to traditional socialization modify everyday life. There is a corresponding need to consider the ways in which emerging practises and beliefs challenge traditional assumptions about the nature of school education. Although schools are by nature conservative and can be resistant to reform, the collective influence of an increase in the number of networked computers, improved teacher training, and the impetus of a transformed culture in a wide society are likely to lead to a reconsideration of the nature of schooling

Keywords: Challenges, school, school education, university education, information, society, information technology, technology, information society

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Full text: content.rtf (61,551 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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