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G. Polat & Y. Buyuksaracoglu

Using discrete-event simulation for process modeling: Case of work structuring of asphalt highway construction operations

Abstract: In this study, the resource planning problem of a real-life problem, namely a 4 km long and 14 m wide asphalt highway project, was handled. According to the contract between the owner and the contractor, all construction work should have been completed within 17 days. The contractor of this project aimed to determine the minimum number of resources required to complete the project within the estimated project duration and their utilization rates. In this research, this problem was handled using computer simulation technique. For this purpose, a dynamic, stochastic and discrete event simulation model was used. The simulation model was built using the ready-made simulation software Extend+BPR. The simulation results revealed that when 3 flagmen, 1 grader, 1 road roller, 1 water truck, 17 trucks, 1 paver, 1 rubber roller, 1 steel wheel roller, and 5 laborers are used, the construction phase of the project could be completed within 17 days. Among all the resources required to complete the project, while the rubber roller had the maximum utilization rate (68%), the water truck had the minimum value (7%). The simulation results also indicated that while any increase in the number of these resources did not help to shorten the project duration, any decrease in the number of these resources brought about severe delays. Although the proposed methodology has some limitations, it has great potential to optimize resources and production rates in similar asphalt highway construction operations, especially when used during the planning phase.

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Full text: content.pdf (551,535 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Hongjo Kim, Hyoungkwan Kim, Yong Won Hong and Hyeran Byun

Detection of Construction Equipment Using Deep Convolutional Networks

Abstract: Vision-based monitoring methods have been investigated for understanding construction site contexts. However, detection capabilities of such methods are still insufficient to be utilized in general construction sites due to dynamic outdoor conditions and appearance variances of construction entities. To improve performance of a construction entity detector, we propose a detection method using a region-based fully convolutional network (R-FCN). R-FCN consists of two main parts, which are a fully convolutional network and a region proposal network. The fully convolutional network extracts hierarchical object features through a supervised learning process, while a region proposal network generates a set of object candidate regions in an image to localize target objects. To evaluate the generalization performance of the detection method, a benchmark dataset is collected from ImageNet for five classes (dump truck, excavator, loader, concrete mixer truck, and road roller), having various object appearances within a class in different backgrounds. A state-of-the-art performance, mean average precision of 95.61%, was recorded from the experiment. The proposed method shows a potential for the universal detector that can detect construction equipment on every construction site.

Keywords: Construction Site Monitoring, Object Detection, Convolutional Networks, Benchmark Dataset

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0335

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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José Weissmann and, Angela J. Weissmann

Simulation Of Truck Safety Inspection Procedures At The Texas/Mexico Border

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Full text: content.pdf (380,996 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Y. Ji, A. Borrmann, E. Rank, J. Wimmer & W. A. Günthner

An Integrated 3D Simulation Framework for Earthwork Processes

Abstract: The paper presents a framework that helps in the planning and analysis of earthwork processes in infrastructure construction projects by applying simulation techniques. In contrast to existing solutions, the framework presented here makes it possible to retrieve all the information required to run the simulation in an automatic way from a holistic 3D model that integrates the 3D roadway model, the 3D surface model and the 3D subsoil model. The most important information needed to simulate earthwork processes are the location and the quantity of cut and fill sections. To generate this data, a computational method has been developed that applies a voxelization to the merged 3D model. The result is a large set of cubes, each of which possesses a dedicated position and material. This mass haul data is much more fine-grained than that used in traditional approaches and forms an excellent basis for performing a detailed earthwork process simulation. The employed simulation engine which is based on the discrete-events paradigm, serves to describe entities such as diggers and trucks, their behaviour (e.g. digger fills truck) and the time required for an atomic process step (to fill a truck, for instance). The result of the simulation is a set of detailed information on the utilization ratio of the employed resources and the time required for completing the entire earthwork project. This allows the user to identify bottlenecks and slack periods and adapt the resources accordingly.

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Full text: content.pdf (247,259 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Z Yin, M Lu, M Al-Hussein

Development of CAD-Spreadsheet integrated solution to Optimazing Site Grading Design for industrial Construction

Abstract: Industrial construction covers a wide range of construction projects that are essential to our utilitiesand basic industries, such as petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants, synthetic fuel plants, fossilfuel and nuclear power plants etc. Land formation for an industrial construction site needs to considermany engineering constraints such as (1) ensuring proper drainage, (2) prevention of flood, (3) drivingsafety, (4) optimizing earthwork by balancing cut and fill, (5) minimizing truck travel distances inearthmoving, and (6) proper equipment matching for achieving high equipment utilization rates. Wehave developed a computer-based application framework by seamlessly integrating earthwork designin CAD and earthwork optimization in spreadsheet, in order to facilitate the practical application of theproposed framework on site formation for industrial construction. This paper presents an optimizationproblem formulation in an Excel spreadsheet model based on the least squares method. The Solverutility for optimization analysis in Excel provides a cost-effective tool to identify the optimum designsurface model satisfying practical constraints on slopes and the highest elevation. A case study is usedto demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed application framework for earthwork optimizationbased on site formation on an industrial project in Alberta.

Keywords: earthwork, optimization least squares method, cut/fill balance, CAD, Excel Solver

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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