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Eilif Hjelseth, Nick Nisbet

Exploring Semantic Based Model Checking

Abstract: This paper is exploring the foundation of semantic based model checking concepts. Development of computable rules in a pure semantic based concept is characterized by “soft coding” by following a pre-defined system (mark-up) methodology for linguistic (text and numbers) analyze, organization, execution and reporting. The software programming of this can be done automatic or semi-automatic based on predefined procedures. This enables an AEC skilled person to develop applicable rules without support of programmers. The rules can be applied on then semantic content BIM file in e.g. IFC format.Whether it is possible to develop a valid and reliable system applicable to rule sources (laws, codes, standards) depends on testing two key hypothesis:The use perspective is basis for the first hypothesis: Can a pre-defined semantic system or toolset be used (by an AEC skilled person, not software programmer) on the variation of how rule sources are expressed. The answer on this is based on the constraints of the systems. Negative experiences by Artificial Intelligence based on natural language and the ambiguity in the language itself (Sowa, 2000 and 2006) indicates that there is not a straight forward procedure. Introduction of prerequisite and constraints indicate that trustworthy results are possible (Hjelseth, 2009 and Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009). Whether this will result in too limited area of application is discussed. The ISO/DIS 21542 standard for accessibility and usability will be used as case.The second hypothesis is: A system for automatic, or semi-automatic, generating of applicable rule sets for software implementation can be developed. This must rely on the applicability link predefine commands to adjacent actions for the semantic analyses. Limitations and possibilities will be in focus.A thorough perspective will be about challenges above are related to ICT-systems or the complexity of the semantic of world itself.References: Bell, Bjørkhaug and Hjelseth, 2009. Standardized computable rules. Pilot study of methods for development of computable rules Project at Standards Norway, http://www.standard.no/en/Sectors/Bygg-og-anlegg/Digital-byggeprosess/ISO-BIM-standards/Computable-rule-project/ (Visited: 2010-04-01). ISO/DIS 21542 Building Construction, Accessibility and usability of the built environmentISO standard under development of ISO committee TC 59/SC 16 http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees/list_of_iso_technical_committees/iso_technical_committee.htm?commid=291991 (Visited: 2010-04-01). Hjelseth, E. 2009. Foundation for development of computable rules. Presented at CIB-W78, Turkey, Istanbul, Oct. 1-3th 2009. http://www.optima.no/BIM/PhD_Eilif_Hjelseth/Eilif_Hjelseth_UMB-Norway_Paper_73_CIB-W78_2009.pdf (Visited: 2010-04-01).Sowa, J. F. 2000. Knowledge representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational foundations, Thomson Learning. ISBN 0 534-94965-7

Keywords: Model checking, semantic, BIM, IFC

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Gul Polat and Glenn Ballard

Impacts Of Company-Wide Improvements On The Economics Of On-Site Fabrication Practice Of Rebar In Turkey

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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H.U. Gke, K.U. Gke, Donal Browne, Karsten Menzel

Dynamic System Architecture for Energy Efficient Building Operation: A Case Study of Kiptas Residential Building

Abstract: Buildings account for almost 40 percent of total energy in Europe. Holistic monitoring and analysis methodologies can reduce this by up to 30%. However, the adoption of monitoring and control systems for building management and control applications is hampered by the unavailability of appropriate tool environments. In this paper an integrated model-driven approach that automates the design from component to application level will be presented to provide optimized building operations. The aim is to create a holistic environment for wireless embedded monitoring and control systems to increase the efficiency of the overall system development process and to exploit their potential for reduction of building energy consumption. To reach this objective, new methods, tools and equipments were researched and integration methods covering integrated design, energy simulation models and data warehouse technologies were developed. The findings were applied to a residential building of Kiptas in Istanbul, Turkey and possible energy saving improvements were suggested.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Ibrahim, Manson; Jahnkassim, Puteri Shireen; Ali, Maisarah; Latip, Nurul Syala Abdul; and Abidin, NorZalifa Zainal

Virtual Reality in Heritage Studies and Historical Reconstruction through Animation A Case Study of a 16th Century University Complex in the Ottoman World

Abstract: The paper describes the research and development of a virtual project based on the visualisation of measured architectural and construction details and extended research into a heritage building i.e. a 16th century Islamic complex undertaken as part of an architectural curriculum subject entitled Heritage studies. The modelling was focused on selected portions of the Suleymaniye complex in Istanbul Turkey, while the animation and storyboard integrated findings from a research extension of the project which looked at the link between the social structure of the city with the overall hierarchical nature of the architecture and planning of the complex. Virtual reality and animation tools were used within the process of analysing the architecture and construction technology within the background of the social structure of the Ottoman society during 15th and 16th centuries. The aim was not only to deepen constructional understanding but to discover the historical and social context which lay behind the development of its city life. The virtual reality dimension of the study focused on a virtual walkthrough and animation of the overall Suleymaniye complex and selected parts of the complex such as the madrasa and the imaret or soup kitchen. The focus of the virtual walkthrough is the Sleymaniye Mosque which is surrounded by four medreses, a Darulhadis Medrese which had specialized in teaching Hadith, a medical school, a primary school, a hospital, a reflection hall, a caravanserai, shops, bath house, imaret (soup kitchen), caravanserai (inn), darussifa (hospital) or the hammam covering a 7.3 hectares wide area. Virtual reality was further used to enhance the story board based on the study on the link between the waqf or pious foundations, and development of Ottoman urban life with the ultimate aim of linking these complexes to the social system and structure of urban society.

Keywords: Heritage Studies, virtual reality, visualization

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Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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U Isikdag, J Underwood, V Ezcan, S Arslan

Barriers to e-procurement in Turkish AEC Industry

Abstract: E-procurement is beginning to offer opportunities for facilitating the traditional procurement processes in the AEC industry. Both supplier and buyer sides in the construction supply chain make use of e-procurement approaches as these facilitate the procurement process by providing opportunities for better communication and coordination and expanding the marketplace for both parties. With e-procurement, the buyer side holds the advantage of reaching more suppliers and products of lower cost, while suppliers have the advantage of reaching more customers in the online markets. In contrast to the globalisation of procurement in main production industries, e-procurement in the AEC industry mainly occurs at the national level (within a country). Furthermore, organisations within the AEC industry seem still to have not benefited from most aspects of e-procurement. This status quo in the industry is mainly due to barriers to e-procurement that arise from both supplier and buyer sides. The study presented in this paper explores the barriers to e-procurement in relation to the Turkish AEC Industry. Following the introduction, the paper provides a background by summarizing the previous research regarding the use of e-procurement in the industry. The following section discusses the key barriers in Turkey that were determined as a result of the web survey and interviews, and later the paper concludes by providing an analysis of the survey results.

Keywords: Barrier, e-Procurement, e-Commerce, Turkey, Survey, ICT, IT

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Yang Ji, Andre Borrmann, Johannes Wimmer, Willibald A. Gunthner

Bidirectional Coupling of Macroscopic Optimization and Microscopic Simulation Of Earthwork Processes

Abstract: In the research project “ForBAU – The Virtual Construction Site” [Bormann et al. 2009], an integrated 3D model-based framework for simulating earthwork processes has been developed. This simulation framework consists of two major parts: an earthwork modeling and assessment tool ForBAU Integrator which integrates road, subsoil and terrain model in a holistic model and provides high-accurate quantity takeoffs of the earth movement as simulation source data [Ji et al. 2009]; The second important part is a discrete event-based simulation tool used to model and simulate earthwork processes in detail [Wimmer et al. 2010]. Both tools communicate via an XML interface. In addition of generating quantitative simulation source data, the ForBAU Integrator has been extended by the ability to model earthwork optimization problems using bipartite graphs and to solve these problems with linear programming techniques [Ji et al. 2010]. One of these problems is the Earthwork Allocation Problem (EAP). Here, the optimization objective is determining the optimal assignments of cut to fill areas such that minimal transportation costs incur. Beyond these research results, this paper presents a bidirectional coupling concept between microscopic simulation and macroscopic earthwork optimization. The aim of this approach is iteratively increasing the accuracy of the simulation results in the entire framework. On the one hand, the exactly optimized cut-to-fill assignments are subjected to the mathematical equations which describe upper and lower capacity limitation of respective cut or fill areas as well as the efficient distance between them. This optimization result implies the most effective way for the earth movement from a global point of view, regardless of any resource restrictions. On the other hand, the resource assignments and processing details are modeled on the simulation platform. The actual transportation time of the cut-to-fill earth movement (excavation, load, transportation, compaction, etc.) can be closely estimated in the simulation environment. The key issue behind this concept is to define an iterative parameter exchange between the two different subsystems. Obviously, two possible coupling-parameters can be applied in this case: the cut-to-fill assignments and the corresponding processing time. The iteration starts by initializing the cost function with an average processing time. The optimizer calculates based on this trivial cost function the optimal cut-to-fill assignments as input data for the simulator. After the simulation is finished, the simulated processing times will be re-imported for updating the cost function in the optimizer. The iteration process should end with a converging processing time of earthwork movements. This concept is already implemented and will soon be evaluated by means of a federal high-way construction project in Germany.REFERENCESA. Borrmann, Y. Ji, I-C. Wu, M. Obergrießer, E. Rank, C. Klaubert, W. Günthner: ForBAU - The Virtual Construction Site Project. In: Proc. of the 26th CIB-W78 Conference on Managing IT in Construction. Istanbul, Turkey, October 2009. Y. Ji, A. Borrmann, E. Rank, J. Wimmer, W. Günthner: An Integrated 3D Simulation Framework for Earthwork Processes. In: Proc. of the 26th CIB-W78 Conference on Managing IT in Construction. Istanbul, Turkey, October 2009. J. Wimmer, Y. Ji, T. Horenburg, A. Borrmann, W. Günthner, E. Rank: Evaluation of the 3D Model-based Earthwork Process Simulation in Practice. In: Proc. of the 14th ASIM-Conference Simulation in Production and Logistic (ASIM2010), Karlsruhe, Germany, October 2010, (to appear).Y. Ji, F. Seipp, A. Borrmann, S. Ruzika, E. Rank: Mathematical Modeling of Earthwork Optimization Problems. In: Proc. of the International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering 2010 (ICCCBE 2010), Nottingham, UK, Juli 2010.

Keywords: bidirectional coupling, earthwork, optimization, simulation, road construction

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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