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A den Otter, H Jan Pels, I Iliescu

BIM VERSUS PLM: RISKS AND BENEFITS

Abstract: Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a hot issue. The Building industry feels the urge to use it, but at the same time companies see huge risks, since the ownership and control of information becomes unclear when all building information is put together in one model. Also the cost and the benefits do not always land at the same place. To that account three Dutch firms operating in multi- disciplinary building & construction projects asked the authors to execute a research and design project how to solve this problem. As a result a framework for assessing risks was developed for setting up a successful BIM process. It seems the manufacturing industry is much ahead of the Building industry in using these concepts and technology, be it under the name of Product Lifecycle Management. However, comparing the approaches in the Building industry and manufacturing industry shows that, while construction is primarily interested in the risks, manufacturing is primarilyu focussed on the benefits. The paper tries to explain this difference and concludes with some suggestions to reduce risk and enhance the benefits of BIM for construction companies.

Keywords: Data collection, Product Lifecycle management, Building Information Modeling and Data storage.

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Full text: content.pdf (473,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Galach & Z Kotulski

Risk assessment in disaster recovery strategies development

Abstract: The paper describes the model for selecting disaster recovery strategies for information system. The risk assessment covers the threats and vulnerabilities related to the problem of losing the availability of information processes in the particular information system model. The analysis takes under consideration the relationships between the components of information system in order to find the risk of availability lost propagation within the system. That is the basis for finding the candidate disaster recovery strategies, which have to fulfil these basic requirements. Such an approach allows sifting these ones, which are basically not suitable for the security requirements of the information system. The preliminary accepted strategies are to be analyzed regarding to the estimated cost of implementation and maintenance. The next phase covers the detailed analysis of confidentiality and integrity risks in the candidate strategies. The level of risk related to the confidentiality and integrity of information processed in the disaster situation using given strategy is to be estimated.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A. Borrmann, Y. Ji, I.-C. Wu, M. Obergrießer, E. Rank, C. Klaubert & W. Günthner

ForBAU – The virtual construction site project

Abstract: The paper introduces the Bavarian research cluster ForBAU which has been launched in January 2008 with the aim of an improved planning and management of construction sites, especially in infrastructure projects. To realize this goal, the research cluster focuses on developing a virtual representation of the construction site which involves all essential aspects, including models of the buildings under construction, the environmental boundary conditions, the construction procedure, the logistics processes, and the required resources. The resulting virtual construction site forms one the one hand the basis for simulating the construction process, which allows to identify critical aspects of the construction project in advance and to adapt the resources and the scheduling accordingly. On the other hand, the holistic virtual representation of the real construction site is used during the execution phase to capture all available information about the project – enabling site managers, controllers and engineers to get a detailed overview on its progress and identify potential problems in an early stage.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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A. Dikbas, P. Ercoskun & K. Ercoskun

Enabling Sustainability through SOA within the AEC/FM Domain

Abstract: Sustainability is one of the most important research topics for the Architecture/Engineering/Construction & Facility Management (AEC/FM) domain. Two basic factors which enable sustainability are the technology background and the acquisition capability of this technology to the end users – society. Sustainability requires state of the art technologies which reduce the negative impact of population and affiliation. Key aspects of such technology are; it should depend on renewable resources, without waste, cyclical, based on resource productivity rather than labor productivity, and should even be restorative in its effects on the biosphere. Theproblem is, today establishing such technology is not affordable for the average end user. Development, implication, and acquisition of such technologies takes reasonable time though signs from our earth warns usthat we have no more time. The problem itself contains a lot of interoperability challenges in Information Technology (IT), Process and Organizational levels. Although many governments deploy incentives to promote investments on sustainable technologies, money is not the only measure for the market penetration of a technology. A user oriented approach is developed and a proposal is made to elaborate on the problem as a whole within a reference process model. The model determines the key functions, mechanisms and controls, to enable the design and development of sustainable technologies and facilitate the acquisition of those technologies to the society. The process model basically focuses on the Facility Management processes and addresses many aspects of the problem including financial, legal, and ethical issues. The model benefits from Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions for construction sector from a previous research and promotes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for tracking the lifetime of sustainable technologies. The model includes decision support functions for the design phase, marketing and competency functions for the implication and acquisition phase, and measurement and evaluation functions for the use phase. The preliminary solution includes business processes rather then IT solutions but interoperability solutions on the IT layer also have been discussed for sustainable development. The model is under development within the joint efforts of a EU funded FP6 project I3CON (Industrialised, Integrated, Intelligent Construction) and a PhD research. It is believed that the model would facilitate the widespread recognition of the requirement of a radical switch to the sustainable technologies.

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Agger K

Facilities management IT tools: building model, basic information and graphics

Abstract: The need for small easy to use Facilities Management IT tools for the existing building stock has led to the development of IokalEjdlnFo a windows based managementhnformation system with graphical navigation. The first version is in use in public institutions and the second version is under consideration among a broad group of FM experts in DK. IokalEjdlnFo has been implemented as a database system with graphicdCAD added on. The paper will discuss the building model used in the system, the sufficient model for FM in comparison with the necessary CAD model for building and the possibilities for extracting the FM building model from the CAD model. Basic information on the property is extracted from public databases and is used for automated generation of part of the objects in the building model. Graphic information is extracted from CAD models of the building or created from scanned drawings by the means of simple CAD tools added to the database tool as extensions. Graphics are used for graphic navigation in the model, for extracting quantities and for presentation of information. The paper discuss strategies for FM and CAD.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,174,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.036948) class.man-software (0.031639) class.communication (0.011701)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Aish R

Extensible enterprise computing for construction as a necessary pre-cursor for collaborative engineering

Abstract: "Our focus is to consider the construction industry as essentially an information processing system. In its ideal form, practitioners (each with an individual internal representation of design intent) interact with other practitioners by first interacting with an information processing system that manages various shared external representation of design intent. The underlying assumption (from an information technologist's perspective) is that design data is held in a sufficiently complete representation, and that changes to this representation are transactions that move the representation from one consistent state to another. We might call this 'enterprise computing' for construction. This ideal of 'enterprise computing' for construction can be compared to the realities of current practice. - Due to its fragmentation, the construction industry generally perceives its use of information technology in terms of multiple discrete 'individual' systems (with the resulting proliferation of discrete documents) rather than as an enterprise systems. - The drawing tradition, which represents building in 2D, with different representations of the same design split across multiple independently editable documents inhibits consistent management of design and the use of analytical tools. While these may be familiar arguments, there are new object oriented and data management tools emerging from key software developer, such as Bentley Systems, that are designed to address the specific needs of a 'construction enterprise', namely geometric generality, multiple application semantics, multi-user access, and transaction management. These systems also address the scalability and reliability issues required for deployment in practice. Again, arguments for (and advantages of) systems of this type have been discussed in the research literature for more than two decades. The difference is that these systems are ready for deployment. But with this prospect for a broader application of 'Enterprise Computing' for Construction, there are associated other significant issues which may concern both the 'strategic' and the 'creative' practitioners, namely: - Semantic completeness: building a sufficiently complete multi-disciplinary representation of design intent - Data integrity: where any intelligent components are used, these should not become 'orphaned', for example, by object ""instance"" data being detached from the definitions of the corresponding class - Data longevity: the integrity of design and other data should be maintained for the life-time of the building, across new hardware platforms and operating systems. Upgrades to the application and any intelligent components should not disrupt or invalidate existing data - Parallelisation of design: individual designers or engineers should be able to work in parallel, and then be able to synchronize their changes to design data with co-workers - Expressibility: architectural design and construction engineering are open-ended domains. Additional intelligent components should be capable of being added on a ""per project"" basis. Within this context, this paper will explore the essential 'tension' that exists within the Architecture and Construction sectors. On the one hand, there is a perceived need by construction managers for computing tools based on clearly defined and agreed schema to control the construction process (thereby giving economic advantage, comparability, etc.). On the other hand, creative designers who are under other competitive pressures, are expecting a different set of computing tools to allow the exploration of new building configurations and construction geometry. While in the former case a standardisation of schema (as the foundation of a traditional ""Enterprise Computing"" system) would appear to be in order, in the later case the essential 'open-ended-ness' of the creative process demands ""extensibility"" as a pre-requisite of any computing system. These differing requirements (and indeed, attitudes) within the user community, presents software developers with interesting challenges. What technologies (for example, object and/or relational) and what 'domain abstractions' are appropriate foundations for solutions for these differing requirements. Or indeed, what technologies and 'domain abstractions' can be used as the basis for broader set of applications whose design is intended to unify across this apparent ""management-creative"" divide…hence the theme of this paper: ""'Extensible Enterprise Computing' for Construction"". Fundamentally, this is not exclusively an issue of technology. We need to address both the technical and cultural issues if we are to realise our collective ambition of providing effective tools with which to support collaboration between the diverse range of interests that occur within the Architecture and Construction sectors."

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Full text: content.pdf (827,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.034023) class.software development (0.019513) class.represent (0.017320)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Alan Hore, Barry McAuley and Roger West

BIM Innovation Capability Programme of Ireland

Abstract: The Irish Government has requested that Enterprise Ireland, an organisation responsible for the development and growth of Irish enterprises in world markets to actively promote the use of BIM in Ireland. This promotion has taken the form of an opportunity for Enterprise Ireland clients to apply for a grant under their BIM Enable and BIM Implementation schemes and also through their funding of the BIM Innovation Capability Programme (BICP) of Ireland. The BICP is a two-year project (2016-2018) which seeks to capture the capability of the Irish Construction Industry and the Higher Education Institutes to respond to the increased requirement for BIM in Ireland. One of the primary responsibilities of the BICP research team is to collate data to assist the Irish National BIM Council (NBC) in the formulation of a National BIM Roadmap. To achieve this a global and local BIM study was undertaken in 2016. This involved extensive desk-top based research exploring the value proposition behind what governments and professional bodies are doing to advance BIM in their respective countries. The research identified a number of common themes or pillars that Ireland will need to further address before a roadmap is formally disseminated. After exploration of these pillars, within an Irish context, it was found that despite a lack of standards and contractual frameworks, it has not prevented the industry from deploying BIM on Irish projects

Keywords: BIM, Irish Roadmap, Public Works, BIM Innovation Capability Programme

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0079

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Alarcon L F, Bastias A

Computer aided strategic planning

Abstract: Modelling concepts developed to analyse project strategic decisions have been extended and implemented in a computer system leading to a generalised methodology that allows modelling and evaluation of strategic decisions in almost any decision area. Some recent application areas of this modelling system are: strategic planning, evaluation of environmental policy impacts and evaluation of risks in owner contractor relationships . The system uses concepts of cross-impact analysis and probabilistic inference as the core of the analysis procedure. A modular model structure and a simplified knowledge acquisition procedure has been designed to avoid the excessive cognitive demands imposed to the users by the original cross-impact methodology. A simple questioning process is used to guide the discussion and elicit information in an ordered manner. The result is a powerful but easy to use computer modelling system where managers, or other potential users, are not exposed to the complexities of the mathematical model. The computer system is implemented in a Windows 95 platform and it provides a graphical interface to help the users in building a conceptual model for the decision problem. The model is a simplified structure of the variables and interactions that influence the decisions being analysed. Influences and interactions assessed by experts or decisions makers are stored in a knowledge base. The system provides powerful analysis capabilities, such as: sensitivity analysis, to identify the most important variables in the decision problem; scenario analysis, to test decision under different environmental conditions; prediction of selected performance outcomes; risk analysis, to identify the risk involved in different alternatives; comparative analysis of the effects of alternative actions on individual or combined performance measures; explanatory capabilities through the model causal structure; etc. The computer model can translate expertise collected from multiple experts into a prediction of significant outcomes for decision-making. The model allows management to test different combinations of options and predict expected performance impacts associated with the decisions under analysis. The use of this decision-support tool can provide valuable insights on alternative options for strategic decision-making

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Full text: content.pdf (360,296 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.068425) class.impact (0.056619) class.environment (0.054697)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Alekhin V,Antipin A,Gorodilov S,Khramtsov S

Numerical simulation of wind loads on high rise buildings

Abstract: Article presents a methodology of the numerical simulation of the wind on high-rise buildings, which was developed by the Department of Computer-aided design of structures of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. Paper includes the results of researches on development of a technique of determination of wind pressure upon high-rise buildings by means of numerical modeling in an ANSYS package. The investigation was carried out within the grant of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences. The results are applied to calculation of wind pressure upon a number of high-rise buildings under construction in Yekaterinburg City (Russia). Simulation is performed in the program ANSYS. The simulated building is placed in a domain that is the numerical analogue of wind tunnel. Domain sizes are chosen in such a way that simulated buildings do not affect the flow of air on its boundaries. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model has been used. This model effectively combines the stability and accuracy to the standard k-? model in the areas, which are placed near the walls and the effectiveness of the k-e model at a distance from the walls with a smooth transition between them (input expansion functions). For the numerical solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was used (FVM). The scale of the turbulence is assumed to be 200-300m. Use of the developed technique is shown on the example of calculation of wind pressure and wind velocities in pedestrian area for high-rise building under construction in the City of Ekaterinburg.

Keywords: high-rise building,wind impact,simulation,wind loads

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Alonso J M, Alvarruiz F, Hernandez V, Vidal A M

HPC in the building construction sector

Abstract: In the context of the HIPERCOSME project (1) (ESPRIT project 20059), the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) in collaboration with Spanish partners, developed a new High Performance Computing (HPC) demonstrator to calculate Reinforced Concrete Building Structures. Starting from a sequential software package, the objective of that project was to develop a portable parallel software package, able to cope with large scale problems and more realistic models (more information could be obtained in http://wwwcopa.dsic.upv.es/copa_eng.html). The performance of the prototype was analysed by means of a test battery composed of 4 real buildings. The performance of the prototype was compared to that of the original sequential package, showing that the former was from 20 up to 60 times faster than the latter. Besides, since a trial and error process must be carried out, the best and cheapest structural solution can be obtained. This leads to a reduction of the cost of the constructive elements and an increase in safety. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the code performance, a 3D approach to the problem of computing the building structure can be performed. Hardware and software requirements for this prototype are very common.The parallel platform can be a cluster of Ethernet linked PC's running under an easily available operating system such as LINUX (public domain) and the PVM passing message environment (public domain also). Moreover, the application is portable and can be run on other computers and parallel systems. Thus, in the context of the project, five Workshops were organised to promote the results in the European regions where the project partners belonged to. In these Workshops, Demonstration Actions were carried out with the presence of different small and medium size construction enterprises of each region. Co-operation among the partners led to contacts with new construction companies interested in the HPCN framework. As a consequence, six Assessment Studies were developed with European construction companies from Spain, Portugal, France and Greece, in order to understand the needs of the European market. UPV is the Valencian Community node of HIPERTTN. This technological Transfer Node is part of the METIER action in the HPCN PST activities of the IV ESPRIT Programme. TTN's try to stimulate the technology transfer and dissemination of the results of the HPCN projects in Europe. As a consequence, a Construction Sector Group has been recently created in this TTN Network. In the full paper, we will describe the technical work developed in the project, both from the point of view of the computational tools and the experience of transference of technology to the Construction Sector.

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Full text: content.pdf (51,870 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.030939) class.bestPractise (0.026703) class.communication (0.025338)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


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