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Durmisevic S, Ciftcioglu O, Sariyildiz S

An application of neural network in post-occupancy evaluation of underground stations

Abstract: "The architectural and construction design deals very often with the word quality. This term is so vague and broad that the main difficulty arises if one needs to determine its aspects. It is rather simple to deal with the quantifiable building standards. The problem is how to demystify and thereafter integrate this fuzzy concept of quality into design. As an example we will use underground stations as a design problem area for two reasons. First of all, these spaces are rather young structures that have a high potential in the future. The efficiency of underground transport and importance of multiple space usage in the densely built urban areas are only some benefits that these spaces can offer. But yet many realized underground projects were not satisfactory to the users. Second reason lies in a fact that these spaces have their own limitations. Some qualities that are so obvious for the aboveground buildings, such as daylight or view, are rather difficult to obtain in underground spaces. Therefore, in these spaces the word quality is even more sensitive. But the literature that the architects can consult regarding these problems is rather scattered and difficult to obtain. One of the reasons is a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories followed by the research results and applied techniques. In this paper we used the AI technique, a Neural Network, for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to develop a Support Model that will enable quality measurement of underground spaces in a systematic way. In order to avoid the ad-hoc design solutions for underground spaces, there is a need for systematic approach to their design. In such way the intuitive approach to problem solving can be minimized. This paper deals with following topics: 1. aspects that determine the quality of space 2. classification of psychological and spatial aspects 3. development of conceptual framework 4. application of Neural Network for post-occupancy evaluation 5. results and endeavor design guidelines First three topics will deal with criteria definition, which were necessary for design of the experimental part of a research. The experimental research, which was carried out at the site of one underground station, provided the necessary data. The main emphasis of the paper will be on Neural Network application (topic 4), which will be used to treat the data gathered on underground station. The main objective is to verify the consistency of the outcomes against the predefined criteria."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,096,055 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.050429) class.impact (0.013741) class.social (0.008794)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Durmisevic S, Ciftcioglu O, Sariyildiz S

Knowledge modelling of 'soft' data in architectural design

Abstract: IT Context: Information technologies are at present used in various disciplines to address issues such as information processing, data mining, knowledge-modelling etc. Its final goal is to provide necessary aid to professionals during decision-making process. This raises already few questions such as, what type of data is considered and are there some new emerging technologies that can improve knowledge modelling and therefore provide better decision support to the professionals. Design professionals are very often confronted with soft data that they somehow need to interpret and finally integrate in a design. Situations dealing with the numerical data may occur quite naturally in exact sciences like engineering sciences, life sciences etc. However, the quantities subject to consideration in soft sciences are often qualitative rather than quantitative so that we relate to that type of data as 'soft' data. As an example, in such cases, the quantities may be linguistic so that such quantities have to be somehow expressed in numerical form for treatment by conclusive numerical analysis methods. Objectives: The architectural design task is one example having linguistic qualities as priory design information. This is especially the case when qualities of certain space are discussed, like for example in post occupancy evaluation of the buildings, where the relationship between spatial characteristics and psychological aspects plays an important role. Expressions such as: bright colour, light room, large space are some of these examples and therefore a special method is needed for representation and processing of such vague expressions and concepts. Better understanding of these concepts is necessary so that the knowledge can be modelled in a proper way. Methodology: The analyses are performed by means of soft computing methods. The data subject to analysis and later to knowledge modelling belongs to an underground station that is already being used. For this purpose, the data on psychological aspects are obtained via comprehensive inquiry of the users of underground station. For the analysis, the linguistic information is firstly converted to terms in fuzzy logic domain and after appropriate treatment, the data analyses are carried out and the results are expressed in most comprehensible form for design assessments. Such conversions are referred to as fuzzification and defuzzification, where the data are expressed in numerical form and therefore become convenient for mathematical treatment. Conclusions: Referring to the complexity of task in dealing with the soft data as well as dealing with soft computing, the paper first identifies the source of these complexities referring to the architectural design tasks. Following this, a soft computing analysis method based on one case study will be presented, whereby the focus will be on knowledge modelling. Finally, the results of the analyses together with the conclusions regarding the observed effectiveness of the approach are presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (242,586 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.036108) class.impact (0.013187) class.analysis (0.007731)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


K Dziadak, J Sommerville, B Kumar & J Green

RFID applied to the built environment: Buried Asset Tagging and Tracking System

Abstract: Within this paper we argue that underground utilities are an area where RFID technology can be applied, with a high degree of accuracy, to locate the buried pipes and others underground equipment. The paper describes an ongoing project to develop a Buried Asset Tagging and Tracking System (BATTS) using RFID technology. Results from initial field trials are considered and issues and concerns relating to developing such an application of RFID are discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (637,782 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Meniru K, Bedard C, Rivard H

Integrated computer-based approach to support conceptual building design

Abstract: "For more than 40 years, computers have been associated with the delivery of construction activities. From large mainframe machines, construction applications have migrated to the full realm of processors - embedded to palmtops to desktops - and to different types of environments, as much on-site in space or underground as in the office. The matrix-based stiffness method on punched cards in batch mode has long ago given way to graphics-based interactive user-interfaces on the Web that give access to a myriad of applications that can support most aspects of the work of construction professionals. In view of such progress, what is left in terms of computer-mediated support for construction that is not already available? The short answer is integration. Much of the construction industry in the world today, certainly in North America, is still characterized by fragmentation. Even though computer support for construction is available in a multitude of ways, effective integration across actors, over the entire life-cycle and covering all components that compose building projects is still in its infancy. At the present time, commercial integrated solutions are more prevalent at the detailed design stage in the form of ""design suites"" of applications for drafting, structures, HVAC, estimating etc. The authors have developed, over many years, a number of integrated building design prototypes at the preliminary stage by means of novel computing techniques derived from AI and product/process modelling. The purpose of this presentation is to push the exploration further upstream at the conceptual design stage, when decisions involving only few individuals have the greatest impact on the life-cycle performance of the building delivery process. On the basis of an extensive literature review, analysis of current design environments and protocol analysis of designers actually engaged in such work, we will identify key concepts and activities that are essential at the conceptual design stage, with the view to propose and implement a computer-based prototype capable of providing effective support."

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Full text: content.pdf (254,793 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.046368) class.environment (0.035022) class.impact (0.022261)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Stascheit J,Meschke G,Koch C,Hegeman F,König M

Process oriented numerical simulation of mechanized tunnelling using an IFC-based tunnel product model

Abstract: The use of underground space is a prerequisite for maintaining mobility and infrastructure in today’s crowded urban areas. In order to minimize risks and mitigate hazards, reasonably accurate numerical simulations of the tunneling process are required. The authors have previously proposed a comprehensive process-oriented 3D finite element simulation model. Information on tunnel projects, however, is usually only available in a heterogeneous and dispersed form, preventing complex simulation models from easily being employed in practice. In this contribution, an IFC-based product model for mechanized tunneling is presented that is used to automatically create a complex numerical simulation model. A model mapping procedure is proposed that links IFC representations of the ground, the tunnel, and the shield machine with the corresponding input of the parametric simulation model. The proposed approach is demonstrated by means of a parameter study for a metro tunnel excavation in Düsseldorf, Germany.

Keywords: Mechanized tunneling,Numerical simulation,Product modeling,IFC,Data exchange

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Full text: content.pdf (2,412,080 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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