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Debras P

Construction application of a gen-network : uniform access to standards, products and company information

Abstract: "Facing an increasing competitive environment where flexibility and adaptability to change are the obliged route to success, building and construction companies have to continuously renew their working habits while keeping business processes under quality, time and cost control. In the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain, the wide diversity in terms of the object built, but also associated to the geographical dispersion of actors and building sites makes such an agility even more crucial. Considering the design and tendering phase of a construction operation, the architects and construction engineers have to efficiently select the manufactured products that will best suit the project while complying to its numerous constraints. Beyond the functionality, performance and cost characteristics, a suitable product has also to conform to the applying regulations and standards, be eventually accompanied with a corresponding technical agreement, offer acceptable delivery solutions on the building site. Moreover, once identified within a manufacturer catalogue, the product has to be integrated into the architect or engineer application desktop, whether it be a CAD, specification writer or quantity take-off application. Addressing these needs, the Global Engineering Networking (GEN) initiative is promoting the reuse of company internal and external engineering knowledge through the emergence of new kind of global market places where actors publish and retrieve on-line a wide range of engineering information and services. In particular, The Construction Pilot in EP 22 284 GENIAL project demonstrates over the AEC domain, the relevance of new generation of Information Technology infrastructures supporting the erection of Value-Added Service Provider (VASP) sites that materialise the GEN vision, i.e. allowing information and services to smoothly be retrieved where required whilst the succeeding company is concentrating on its core competencies. With such an infrastructure, whether it is through material, performances, manufacturer, regulation or price discrimination, the appropriate component, document or service is rapidly and cost effectively brought on the designer desk for the best value of the overall project. On the other side of the communication pipe, the supplying partner gains the opportunity of reaching an enlarged audience as IT now commonly break any geographical distance. In practice, three major information publishers and a building contractor in Europe initiate the GEN network in the AEC domain through the erection of VASP sites offering product, company or document related information. User queries are governed by various standard (EPIC, UNICLASS) or corpus specific (BATIBASE, EDIBATEC) classification systems. Relevance of the overall approach is demonstrated through the presentation of a large variety of such queries for the various information corpuses used : Techcom company and product information, BIC company, product and document, REEF regulation documentary corpus or EDIBATEC product information."

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Full text: content.pdf (748,881 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.032376) class.retrieve (0.019963) class.roadmaps (0.012591)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Dijkstra J, Timmermans H, B de Vries

VR based simulation of user behaviour within the built environment to support the early stages of building design

Abstract: Architects are often faced with the problem to assess how their design decisions will affect the behaviour of individuals. Various performance indicators are related to the behaviour of individuals in particular environments. One approach to deal with this problem is to develop a system that relates user behaviour to design parameters. The paper discusses the framework of a multi-agent system approach for investigating visualized simulated pedestrian activity and behaviour within a building. The approach will lead to a system that may serve as a toolkit in the design process for a better understanding what the design look like, and perhaps more importantly have users will behave in that particular environment. Agent technology is derived from DAI which is also applied in the construction industry (Onuegbu O. Ugwu e.a., The application of DAI in the construction industry, CIT2000, pp. 959-970). The concept of this system is based on micro-simulation of pedestrian flows and multi-agent technology. In this context, pedestrians are people navigating within the built environment. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D environment, in which space is represented as a network which is a lattice of cells with local states, subject to a uniform set of rules, which drives the behaviour of the system. Agents represent pedestrians with their own behaviour, moving over the network. The 3D environment is a virtual environment of the design of a new building or the revitalization of an existing building. Thus, a virtual building environment with virtual pedestrians will be constructed using multi-agent simulation. In this particular environment, a set of instances corresponding to the elements of multi-agent simulations is designed. We distinguish user-agents that represent pedestrians in the simulation. We call the individual that is supposed to walk through the environment a subject-agent and all other simulated pedestrians in the system actor-agents. Thus, subject-agent and actor-agents are user-agents that navigate in this virtual environment, each with their own behaviour, beliefs and intentions. With the simulation system, we will get more insight into the pedestrian activity behaviour and thus in the pedestrian flows in buildings, not yet existing. This will be of great importance in the assessment of design performance. For a designer or researcher, this system approach results in a decision support tool for the early stages in the design process of the construction of a building.

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Full text: content.pdf (484,430 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.029736) class.analysis (0.014083) class.impact (0.008671)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Karhu V

Formal languages for construction process modelling

Abstract: "Numerous modelling methods and languages have been developed for describing different aspects of industrial and other processes. Each method, for instance the widely used scheduling method as used in project planning software, has a specific scope (i.e. the modelling of the sequence in time of interdependent activities) for which it has been designed and for which it is well suited. Used outside this scope the method may prove quite inadequate. A number of such methods have either been used or proposed for the modelling of construction processes. In order to create the basis for a next generation of more general purpose process modelling tools an analysis has been made of six such methods. In order to illustrate the concepts and graphical notation of each method a simple example of making the foundation of a summerhouse with a sauna is used. Additionally the concepts of each method have been modelled using a uniform methodology, the EXPRESS information modelling language. Based on the analysis a synthesis method, called IDEF++ is proposed and defined in EXPRESS. The method is defined on the semantic level, as its main purpose would be to enable the storing of process descriptions in a database format, enabling multiple user views to the same information. A prototype application is developed to demonstrate different views."

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Full text: content.pdf (282,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.007764) class.software development (0.007478) class.social (0.006617)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Löwnertz, Kurt

Change and Exchange - Electronic Document Management in Building Design

Abstract: Producing documents using computer supported methods has become common practice in the construction industry, but the management of documents is still to a large degree done with manual methods. Some pioneering users in design, construction and facility management respectively have applied electronic document management (EDM) within their organisations or for projects. However, the introduction has hitherto been noticeably slow. This thesis discusses the benefits of the new document management techniques to the construction and facility management process, with focus on building design, as well as the obstacles when implementing these techniques. The construction sector process has some particular properties, differing from other industry sectors, in that a project organisation is formed anew for each project and involves a number of specialists with varying requirements for their company-internal production and management of documents. The main themes for EDM in building design are therefore how to manage the change of information and the exchange or sharing of information between the different organisations. The thesis contains a state-of-the-art description of document management in building design, including reviews of commercial applications, standards and current best practice. Basic techniques on a scale from file-hierarchy-based to product-model-based systems are classified and analysed from a building design perspective. Five cases of document management in practice have been studied. The companies studied are active within different design disciplines and have chosen to introduce and use EDM in different ways, with respect to technology as well as the information content that is managed. It is concluded that the different requirements can not be met by uniform methods for document management, but that the exchange of documents and their meta-data has to be supported by information standards which need to cover a number of levels from hardware to construction-specific classification. As a starting-point for further development a conceptual schema for document meta-data suited for building design is discussed. The overall result of the research provides requirements for specifying applications, standards and implementation procedures for electronic document management suited to the activities of building design and the interfaces to longterm information management concerning buildings.

Keywords: Document Management, Construction Process

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Full text: content.pdf (1,510,102 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Raphael B, Smith I

A probabilistic search algorithm for finding optimally directed solutions

Abstract: "Evolutionary search techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) have recently gained considerable attention. They have been used for solving a wide range of problems including function optimisation and learning. In this paper, a new global search technique, called Probabilistic Global Search (PGS), is presented. Results of benchmark tests indicate that this technique performs better than genetic algorithms on a wide range of problems. PGS is a stochastic search technique. It works by generating points in the search space according to a probability distribution function (PDF) defined over the search space. Each axis is divided into a fixed number of intervals with equal probability density. The probability densities of intervals are modified dynamically so that points are generated with higher probability in regions containing good solutions. The algorithm includes four nested cycles: 1. Sampling 2. Probability updating 3. Focusing 4. Subdomain cycle In the sampling cycle (innermost cycle) a certain number of points are generated randomly according to the current PDF. Each point is evaluated by the user defined objective function and the best point is selected. In the next cycle, probabilities of regions containing good solutions are increased and probabilities decreased in regions containing less attractive solutions. In the third cycle, search is focused on the interval containing the best solution after a number of probability updating cycles, by further subdivision of the interval. In the subdomain cycle, the search space is progressively narrowed by selecting a subdomain of smaller size centred on the best point after each focusing cycle. Each cycle serves a different purpose in the search for a global optimum. The sampling cycle permits a more uniform and exhaustive search over the entire search space than other cycles. Probability updating and focusing cycles refine search in the neighbourhood of good solutions. Convergence is achieved by means of the subdomain cycle. The algorithm was tested on highly non-linear, non-separable functions in ten to hundred variables. Results are compared with those from three versions of GAs. In most cases PGS gives better results in terms of the number of times global optima were found and the number of evaluations required to find them. The application of the technique to non-parametric optimisation problems is further illustrated using an example from conceptual structural design."

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Full text: content.pdf (373,661 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.019177) class.impact (0.015651) class.deployment (0.013039)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Rashidi A,Brilakis I,Vela P

Built infrastructure point cloud data cleaning: an overview of gap filling algorithms

Abstract: Video captured from infrastructure scenes can be used to generate point cloud data (PCD) as a potential solution for acquiring spatial information of built infrastructure - however, video based PCD is incomplete and includes gaps, outliers and poor/non-reconstructed areas. This phenomenon has a negative impact on both visualization and measurement practices and is mainly caused by a number of reasons including insufficient coverage of all views while videotaping the scene, lack of sufficient features on uniform surfaces and possible errors in calibration, matching and optimization algorithms. To tackle this issue, researchers suggested various post processing algorithms for reconstructing missing surfaces and filling gaps/holes. This paper provides an overview on these algorithms summarize their properties in terms of efficiency, ability to work in complex geometry settings and running time. As the comparison study, three most common hole filling algorithms: MSL, GG and RFR were implemented and tested on a number of real built infrastructure scenes as the case studies. Number of generated 3D points for filling the gaps, proper distribution of points on covered surfaces and running time are three major comparison metrics has been taken into account. Results indicate that in general PML outperforms other algorithms on both flat and curved surfaces.

Keywords: Built infrastructure,triangulation,gap,Point Cloud Data,surface reconstruction

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Full text: content.pdf (1,158,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Sarbach A

Standards and communication systems in construction planning

Abstract: A planning team today has to cope with new boundary conditions. On the one hand, these are the economic situation and structural changes in the building trade, and, on the other hand, the new technical possibilities in the planning process and in the area of communications. The standards and communication systems compiled as part of our project support both aspects. Through a uniform document management, a legal basis and the standardization of the drawings time is saved avoiding a multiple processing of the same plan documents. The standards are take into account the use of modern and direct communications and tools. The data occurring is structured and organized during the planning period, so that it can be further used in the operating phase of a building. The Engineering Data Management System manages the organizational standards and controls the different communication systems used. Thus both components are united in a single method. An essential part of our project is the development of this program. My article describes firstly the Standards, then the different communication systems and finally the developed Engineering Data Management System.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,797,760 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.042675) class.economic (0.041679) class.communication (0.033688)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Sulaiman M J, Ng Kok Weng, Cher Dong Theng, Berdu Z

Intelligent CAD checker for building plan approval

Abstract: In construction industry, architects need to have a deep knowledge of the uniform building by law and the local council requirements before designing a building or a house. The process of applying his or her knowledge in terms of building by law interpretation is critical during the design stage. Due to enormous amount of bylaws involved, architects may design with some non-compliance to the by-laws. This mistake will be costly especially if it causes the building plan to be rejected by the municipal council or the fire department. The mistake will probably cause a significant delay in the completion of project thus leading to penalty and other costs. Viewing from the point of the approval authority, the personnel involved in approving building plans is also prone to make mistake in approving building plans that have non-compliance to the by-laws. Such mistake may cause great harm to occupants of the building and the responsible authority may be accountable for any mishap caused by the non-compliance. Hence the proposed system discussed in this paper intends to eliminate any errors in interpreting as well as checking for bylaws non-compliance directly from a CAD file submitted by an architect. This system directly reads in the building design CAD file before checking it's attributes and specifications against the building by-laws and will report any non-compliance to the user.

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Full text: content.pdf (119,236 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.077622) class.social (0.013925) class.strategies (0.007529)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Tarandi V

Object oriented communication with NICC (neutral intelligent CAD communication)

Abstract: NICC is a recommendation of the Swedish construction industry for Neutral Intelligent CAD Communication. It will make it possible for different participants in the industry to exchange information in a standardized way, independent of which CAD-system they have chosen. As NICC describes building objects (walls, windows, doors, etc) it makes it possible to transfer uniform and structured information during the whole process. The description of the building objects in NICC is based upon a simplified geometry. NICC can manage GEOMETRY OBJECTS (building objects and spaces), SYSTEMS (logical groupings of geometry objects), CONNECTIONS (between geometry objects) and LOCATIONS. The idea behind NICC is to transfer information about Ilintelligent " building objects classified after a standard, in Sweden the BSAB-system. Each CAD-system, drawing or model oriented, has to map its own structured data to the minimal meta model of NICC.

Keywords: CAD; communication; building objects; conceptual model; step

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Full text: content.pdf (390,770 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Tuncer B, Stouffs R

Modeling building project information

Abstract: "Building projects are represented through a variety of documents such as drawings, diagrams, models, pictures, and textual information. These documents serve as a medium for communication between the different partners and disciplines within the AEC community. From a collaborative perspective, each document reflects on the author’s discipline as well as on the intended meaning. From a representation perspective, these documents present different aspects of the project such as the geometry, structure, context, and functional organization. As such, we can denote each of these documents an abstraction of the project. Without imposing an integrated product model, a ‘document-based’ approach is preferable for the organization and management of these documents. Here the documents are treated as individual entities, organized and related according to different categories and attributes. A drawback of this approach is that it is not possible to distinguish and relate components within these documents. To overcome this drawback, we propose the adoption of a modeling language, e.g., XML, as a common syntax to re-represent these abstractions. In this way, the documents can be interpreted and broken up into their components. These components within and between abstractions can then be related, and these relationships added to the representation. The result is an integrated model of components and relationships, represented in a uniform way. This paper focuses on some of the representational issues involved in the process of interpreting, breaking up and relating abstractions. We illustrate the potentials of this framework with the representation of a number of abstractions belonging to a body of built architecture, specifically, Ottoman mosques. The paper includes a discussion of the following issues or questions: - How are the components represented and the relationships between them created? The components are defined as structures of tags and attribute-value pairs, and constructed in a hierarchical manner. This enables a simple matching of components between various abstractions. For the creation of relationships, we therefore suggest a semi-automated approach where some of the relationships between components are automatically deduced from the structures and their composition in the representation. - What is the advantage of this representation? This representation does not impose any semantics, but only a common syntax for the definition and creation of an integrated model. This syntax allows one to link abstractions by defining the relationships as individual elements within the representation. Navigating the resulting model, not just the original abstractions but across abstractions through the respective links, yields new views of the project information."

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Full text: content.pdf (438,827 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.038235) class.store (0.036933) class.represent (0.025444)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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