Aalami F, Fischer M
Joint product and process model elaboration based on construction method models
Abstract: In practice, construction planners need to plan and replan projects at several levels of detail and would like create 4D visualizations to communicate construction schedules. The current construction planning and scheduling process is , however, still largely manual and time-consuming, making it difficult to maintain an appropriate and realistic set of plans, schedules, and 4D visualizations throughout design and construction.
Researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of a product model with a decomposition hierarchy and supported-by relationships between project components to generate a construction process model automatically. The product model's decomposition hierarchy supports the generation of hierarchical activities, and the supported-by relationships between components enable automated reasoning. However, the resulting process model is typically not a usable or realistic construction schedule, since activities can only be sequenced if elaborated to the same level of detail, and component-based activity elaboration is limited to the original product model. This paper discusses how a customizable and general representation of construction method models supports the transformation of a design-centric product model into a production-centric view.
A formalized hierarchical construction planning process forms the basis of this translation process. The planning process is broken down into method-driven elaboration and hierarchical planning and scheduling steps.
User-defined and user-selected construction method models drive the elaboration process by supplying the necessary activity and component elaboration knowledge. The product model undergoes a transformation from a design-centric decomposition to a production-centric decomposition. The elaborated activities are sequenced based on constraints that are passed on to the activities from their construction methods. The output of the planning process is a 4D production model. A 4D production model is a linked representation of an elaborated product and process models. A 4D production model is a flexible representation of the construction process that can support many views for communication and evaluation, e.g., 4D visualization, CPM-network, barchart, or resource histograms.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.
Berg Von Linde, Richard
Making Process Models Usable
Abstract: Process models have several fields of application. THe research community of construction IT has used process modelling methodologies for several years to analyse and share information. The construction industry has applied process modelling, among other things to better understand current business, to improve or innovate business and to create information systems that support business.
Developing a business by using process models needs usable process models. This licentiate thesis describes how process mdels presented in a computer environment can be made usable to practitioners of the construction industry.
A structure of concepts is developed that describes interactive environments for process models. The concepts are of two different types: objects and actions. Objects are components that carry the information, and they are not examined in this research. Twelve different actions are identified in the thesis: overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, decompose, relate, history, extract, browse, search, compare and find.
Based on the concepts developed a prototype is developed. An authentic model built according to the IDEF0 process modelling method is displayed in the prototype. Finally, a usability study is performed to gain knowledge about the concepts and their implementation in the prototype.
Keywords: Process model, User interface, IDEF0
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Bowden S, Thorpe A, Baldwin A
Usability testing of hand held computing on a construction site
Abstract: Unless current hand-held computers are found to be usable by site-based personnel the uptake of these new systems will be slow regardless the benefits available to these individuals and the project team as a whole. The technology to extend IT solutions to personnel in the field is available, but there is a preconception that site personnel are not IT literate and therefore will not be able, or willing, to take full advantage of the benefits that IT tools bring. This paper presents a methodology for assessing usability, describes the usability testing of hand held computers by site workers and concludes that this type of device will meet their needs.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.
Brien M J O', Baig A
A semantically rich reference model for building design
Abstract: Much effort has been expended by software developers attempting to build
databases suitable for use by those working within the construction industry.
Various models from the original RATAS relational database model
through to sophisticated process models have been proposed, developed and
evaluated. It is probably fair to say that these research efforts have only
recently begun to effect the practices of professional construction engineers.
This, in part, is due to the need for more sophisticated systems. This paper
describes a database that is usable throughout the design and construction
processes in the construction industry. The method uses the well-established
idea of generic components that can be combined to create a large scale
artefact. The novelty of the approach described herein allows the
components to embody facts and rules that allow design knowledge to be
modelled, captured and retrieved. The facts and rules encapsulate not only
the interactions of the various products but also the processes involved in
their use. In effect, the atomic primitive elements (both components and
rules) can be combined to create complex elements which are semantically
rich. The basic ideas and fundamental philosophy of this approach have
been described elsewhere. This paper is devoted to describing the detailed
implementation of this approach. The content is technical and thorough; it
describes how a passive relational database management system, Oracle, has
been used to create a new metadata structure for the creation, control and
management of the components - both simple and complex. In effect, the
relational database becomes active. Thus, the database reacts to design
decisions by firing rules which then govern the interaction of the
components. The paper presents a detailed description of the underlying
architecture and the data model which has been developed. The paper is
interesting not only to construction engineers but also to software designers
in that it shows how existing database models can be extended by using
their predefined data types to create new, and more complex, ones. While
this is an old, well-established trick, this application to a real-world problem
is a good test of its viability. Finally, a brief review puts this particular
approach into the context of the other myriad attempts to create product and
process reference models with an evaluation of its strengths and
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.
C Bogen, M Rashid, E W East
A Framework for Building Information Fusion
Abstract: Data reported by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is critical for evaluating the as-operated performance of a facility. Typically these systems are designed to support specific control domains, but facility performance analysis requires the fusion of data across these domains. Since a facility may have several disparate, closed-loop SCADA systems, resolution of data interoperability issues (heterogeneities) is a prerequisite to cross-domain data fusion. There are no general methods for resolving these heterogeneities in the context of a nonproprietary core building information model (BIM) format. This article describes how these standard data models are applied to a general framework for the integration of building information models and building sensor telemetry. Given the number of very large corporations, each with its own research agendas and proprietary products, and the large number of installed buildings, each with its own control systems, yet another control scheme or technology will not make an impact on improving this market. The authors propose solutions to these underlying data heterogeneities by adopting existing data standards and introducing new data schemas (only when necessary) based on consensus between industry, government, and academic stakeholders. The Industry Foundation Class (IFC) 2X4 controls domain is the foundation of the authors’ decomposition of SCADA systems as components, assemblies, and connections that relate to other objects in the facility. The Open Building Information eXchange (oBIX) provides the basis for the authors’ representation of raw telemetry streams that map to the underlying IFC model. The system concept described in this article is part of an effort that is expected to produce an Industry Foundation Class Model View Definition (MVD) for building SCADA systems, product type templates for building SCADA products, the architectural design of an integration platform, and the specification of common predictive and analytical functions for deriving usable intelligence from the integration framework.
Keywords: Smart Buildings, Data Fusion, Building Controls and Automation, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes IFC
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C.E. Firat, D. Arditi, J.P. Hämäläinen & J. Kiiras
Extended model-based master scheduling for building projects using advanced line of balance
Abstract: This study addresses a two-step approach to model-based scheduling using the Advanced Line of Balance (ALoB) technique. In the first step, a master schedule is developed by using a product model, a resource and cost model, and public databases such as Ratu files. In the second step, this model-based master schedule is refined by a project manager who injects additional project specific information into it. The objective of this paper is a methodology that can be used to set up a model-based master schedule of a residential building project and then to refine this master schedule to satisfy the conditions in a particular project. The paper introduces building construction information modeling, advanced line of balance before describing the process and structure of model-based master schedule. After a discussion about extending a master schedule into a usable schedule, the findings of a case study are presented. It is concluded that a two-step methodology to create an extended master schedule is feasible.
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Craig R. Dubler, John I. Messner
Evaluating the Value of Early Planning for Building Information Modeling using Lean Theory
Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides a means for owners, designers, contractors, and operators to generate, organize and use detailed information throughout a project lifecycle. An important aspect to the success of BIM is the process in which information is exchanged between team members. In a theory, information should be both accessible and usable, when required. Because the AEC industry is project centered, and several companies work collaboratively towards the design and construction of a facility, the availability and accuracy of information can become constrained. BIM has the potential to improve the effectiveness of building design and construction; however, if the information exchange process is not planned early in the project, the benefits of using the authored data may be mitigated by process waste. This paper serves to evaluate the value associated with early team planning for BIM on two projects being constructed on the Penn State University campus; one which implemented a BIM planning procedure in the design phase. The rationale behind lean theory is to increase efficiency by eliminating waste, consequently increasing value. Therefore, lean principles were modified to establish categories of building information exchange waste. During the case study process actual information exchanges were captured using a process mapping technique. Once the information exchange process was documented, the data was analyzed using the seven types of waste: overproduction, inventory, extra processing, motivation, defects, waiting, and transportation. When applied to information management, these concepts provide a broad framework for an effective process for standardization. Future work includes analyzing the project and team traits for relationships with the information exchange waste. This information will provide additional insight to the value of early planning for Building Information Modeling by documenting the economic benefits that may be achieved by the industry if the information exchange process is developed early in design.
Keywords: BIM, Lean Thinking, Information Exchange, Knowledge Management
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E. William East, Danielle Love, Nicholas Nisbet
A Life-Cycle Model for Contracted Information Exchange
Abstract: This paper will introduce a process-based building data model that tracks key building information through the facility's life cycle. The specification of batch and transactional exchanges, upon which this process model is based, uses the buildingSMART's Facility Management Handover Model View Definition (FM MVD) as the foundation for transforming paper-based deliverables into usable building information. The FM MVD is the first internationally recognized MVD for the exchange of non-geometric building information.
Keywords: Building Information Model, BIM, Facility Management, FM, Handover, Model View, COBie
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General AEC reference model (GARM) an aid for the integration of application specific product definition models
Abstract: The General AEC Reference Model (GARM) is developed for AEC applications
within the ISO/STEP standardisation effort. The goal of this standard is to
facilitate data-exchange between computer-applications for design, production and
maintenance of discrete products, including products for the Architecture,
Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry. The major difference between STEP
and other data-exchange formats, such as IGES, DXF and SET, is that STEP-files or
-databases will be directly interpretable by advanced computer-applications
without human interaction. The other formats allow only the exchange of drawings
or 3D geometric models which are intended for human interpretation. GARM will
be the integration model for AEC applications in the STEP standard; its high level
of abstraction makes it usable for a variety of applications and products, and eases
the development or adaption of generic software products.
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.
Jahnkassim P-S,Abakr Y,Ibrahim I-F
Integrating simulation and visualisation for energy efficiency in a large public mall in the tropics
Abstract: This paper reports on a case study that involved an integrated design process of a large commercial development. In particular, it utilized simulation and visualization to inform strategic design decisions that could reduce heat gain while admitting usable daylight. Additionally, the design intended to avoid extensive air conditioning energy of a large shopping mall in the tropical context of Malaysia. Simulation inputs were presented to a design team throughout the design process and on completion of the building, post occupancy studies were carried out to verify the results. At present, air conditioning is not used in large common public areas and hence, this case study represents a successful application of simulation and visualization tools of such context. The airflow and monitored temperature results verified the simulation output - however, the daylight measurement recorded higher distribution compared to the predicted performance. This may be due to the standard use of 10 k Cie overcast sky in simulation to represent the worst cloudy scenario in Malaysia. Regardless, the results will benefit future planners and developers of large shopping malls by recommending the integrated design process. This process introduces the usage of strategic passive design approach that can save a large amount of energy used in common areas.
Keywords: multivolume,atria,canopy,thermal comfort,bioclimatic,ventilation
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