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A Gehre, P Katranuschkov, V Stankovski & RJ Scherer

Towards Semantic Interoperability in Virtual Organisations

Abstract: Virtual organisations (VOs) are amongst the most advanced forms of doing business to date. Their emergence and growing capacities are closely related to the networking and collaboration capabilities provided by a supporting ICT infrastructure. However, whilst considerable progress in the development of such infrastructures has been achieved over the years, interoperability still remains a major challenge. In this paper we analyse the nature of the semantic interoperability problem, review the state of the art, and derive a set of requirements. On that basis, we propose a novel semantic interoperability framework for VOs, utilising current semantic Web technologies, and suggest possible design and implementation methods for its achievement. Reported is in-house work of the authors as well as on-going research in the frames of the EU project InteliGrid (IST-2004-004664).

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Thorpe, MJ Ward, S Bowden & ADF Price

Facilitating the link between point-of-production workers and corporate ICT systems in construction

Abstract: Web-based project management systems (WPMS) are becoming more widespread within construction and have shown to be beneficial in improving communications and document transfer between project participants. However, the challenge of integrating point-of-production workers into such systems still remains largely unrealised. This paper describes current applications within construction that are addressing these challenges. The technologies employed vary from tablet PC's, PDA's to RFID tags. The paper examines in detail a web-based data capture and management system for piling works, utilising a site-based web server and wireless network. The system effectively allows for the expansion of existing WPMS to include construction site workers, whilst improving the management and understanding of the project in terms of quality, cost and progress. The paper also agues that improved data reliability and robustness can be achieved by integrating the point-of-production operations into corporate ICT systems.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Akinsola A, Dawood N, Hobbs B

Construction planning process improvement using information technology

Abstract: "Construction is a multi-organisation and interactive process. Successful completion of a project therefore depends on the accuracy, effectiveness and timing of communication and exchange of information and data between the supply chain. Unfortunately, the inefficiency of the existing method of communication has become a barrier to several innovative construction processes developed for the industry over the past four decades. Thus, research efforts and direction have since changed. Several studies now focusing on integration of the construction process with communication and standardisation of data exchange, taking advantage of evolving computer technologies. The capability of these technologies, object-oriented technology and the Internet has made a significant impact on other economic sector such as finance, manufacturing, insurance, etc., with significant improvement in performance and productivity. Thus the technology is available but the challenge is utilising the technology to develop method of improving the construction process. To ensure efficient utilisation of IT as enabling tools, formalisation and understanding of the construction processes are required. This will enable the identification of the problems and opportunities of the strategy, and its implementation and performance in practice. The paper presents a detailed model of pre-construction and construction planning processes, based on an on-going research project, that form the basis of the developed planning system. The detailed process mapping methodology using CASE tools and the associated integration of IT tools, as an enabler to aid and improve the planning process, are described. The system provides an interface for integration of CAD data, using IFC objects, within the system. The application of the system offers a promise of significant improvement in both pre-construction and construction processes."

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Full text: content.pdf (375,439 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.028439) class.environment (0.027790) class.impact (0.027062)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bergsten S, Knutsson M

4D CAD- an efficient tool to improve production method for integration of apartments in existing buildings

Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research project on application of a 4D CAD tool for design and production planning of vertical extensions of existing buildings (over-roofing) in Stockholm city, for creation of a more densely populated city as the demand for apartments in the city centre increases. 4D CAD is a concept, which combines an object oriented 3D CAD model with time. 4D CAD is a kind of information visualisation that is easier to understand than traditional methods, such as 2D drawings and time schedules, which are used to manage construction projects. 4D CAD is a logical way of imaging a construction management tool. It is a tool that is conceptually much closer to an intuitive picture of a construction process than 2D drawings and time schedules. The 4D concept is developed at Stanford University and to support the concept researchers at Stanford have developed a prototype that is being used in some complex construction projects in California. The focus of the research project “Integration of apartments in existing buildings by use of Light Gauge Steel Framing”, which this paper is a part of it, is to improve production methods in order to reduce design, planning and construction time for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings in the city centres. A way to improve the production methods is by utilising a 4D planning process in combination with industrialised production of building components. Extensions to existing buildings are due to the demand for new apartments in attractive locations in the city centres and shortage of land for housing in city centres. The Light Gauge Steel constructions have many benefits for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings. According to research results the Light Gauge Steel Framing system is suitable for industrial production. This building system results in a very light weight building compared with traditional materials e.g. concrete which makes it suitable for over-roofing extensions. The materials used in the Light Gauge Steel Systems is thin steel members, plaster boards and mineral wool. Many of the problems, which occur during vertical extensions of existing buildings today, are solved when they are discovered, that is sometimes on the site. Some examples of these problems are poor compatibility between the existing building (structural components and material) and the Light Gauge Steel Framing, detail solutions of the building components, shafts and piping for ventilation, water, sewage and drainage etc. It is less expensive to discover and to correct errors at an early stage compared to solving them on the site. Further a lot of construction time will be saved, which will decrease the disturbance on existing surroundings. Several problems have to be considered in the planning process in order to minimise the disturbance on existing activities and surroundings. This could be done by the use of a 4D CAD planning tool. An over-roofing project located in the city means that the land to use during the production period is limited and expensive. Thereby is the logistic to and from the site more complicated. Consequently the site management and logistic of building components to the building site and their storage on the site is most important. In fact the 4D concept is an efficient planning tool to organise the logistic of the site during the planning phase instead of as today during the production. The site layout can be simulated and visualised with a 4D CAD tool for the actors in the project which in particular will help the site engineer to organise the activities, material flow and site logistic. The value of using the 4D CAD concept is studied by comparing the traditional planning process of a number of over-roofing projects in Sweden with the planning process of the 4D CAD concept. This paper discusses how a 4D CAD tool together with an industrialised production method can be used for improving the production process for an over-roofing project in order to reduce the construction time and with secured quality. The reader will understand and appreciate the added value in form of a more efficient way of managing construction projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (708,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.022264) class.impact (0.010607) class.software development (0.010605)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansen T, Thomsen J

CAESAR - an architecture for enterprise modelling in the aec industry

Abstract: This paper reviews work in progress concerning information modelling in support of enterprise engineering, and discuses how important modelling challenges are being addressed to support more cost effective development of offshore installations for oil production in the Norwegian part of the North Sea. The paper describes a framework and a methodology for information modelling of real world project enterprises and presents initial application examples from the offshore oil and gas industry. CAESAR Offshore is a research program undertaken jointly by Norwegian oil companies, engineering ms, research institutions and the Norwegian Research Council, with the aim of utilising information-technology-based methods and tools which lead to more cost effective field development and operation. As a part of CAESAR Offshore we are developing an object oriented system architecture consisting of a framework and methodology for information modelling, based on our belief that complete and correct enterprise models of development projects must include both the project requirements, deliverables, activities and organisation. Thus information models of projects must represent both the objective, product, process and organisation dimensions. Based upon a model of engineering design, we explicate and relate the enterprise dimensions, and outline a way of describing the difference between planned action and actual behaviour. We implement our model architecture according to an information meta-model, based on a set of common reference entities, and a general offshore reference model. In our work we are using the offshore reference model, as the basis for modelling offshore platforms, design of hydraulic system for offshore production units, and project control systems for engineering design projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,790,144 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.023123) class.represent (0.009418) class.economic (0.008181)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Iosifidis P, Tah J H M, Howes R

Utilising product models for information sharing in an integrated cad environment

Abstract: Despite the extensive use of computing technology within the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry during the past few years, the crucial issue of information sharing amongst AEC participants still remains to be addressed. This results in poor building project co-ordination and affects productivity and final outcome. Our objective at South Bank University is to develop integrated CAD systems that utilise conceptual building product models for efficient building-related data representation and exchange. This paper presents our approach in defining a building product model of CAD- related design (i. e. architectural, structural, etc.) that also identifies overlapping sections with non-design data (i. e. project planning, cost estimating, etc.) which are incorporated for producing enriched data specifications extracted from CAD drawings and used by various AEC disciplines. Different strategies for separating multiple-views of the resulting data are also discussed Finally, a prototype system (MicroLink) that runs under Intergraph's MicroStation PC CAD package is presented. The system operates on a partial set of entities of the overall product model and produces semantically-enhanced design data in a declarative form ready for use by knowledge-based systems for automatic construction activity generation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,686,055 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031229) class.synthesis (0.029459) class.environment (0.021922)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


J. Porkka, J. Kojima, K. Rainio & K. Kähkönen

Utilizing 4D Technology in Supply Chain Management

Abstract: During the last decade the role of technology in supporting the project execution and management has increased. However, the real impacts to supply chain have not been considered. This paper introduces a study utilising 4D technology for supply chain management. We explore how the interactive 4D application can be used for testing alternative supply chain scenarios. We describe experienced challenges when developing 4DLive Linker environment, which enables simulations of multiple scenarios in large construction projects. We demonstrate the research approach in a residential housing case that has two supply chain alterations. Our experiences show that decision making benefits from interactive environment. The end result enhances existing 4D applications to direction where alternative plans can be easily incorporated into applications, studied further interactively and presented in a communicative manner for decision making and construction site training.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Koch C

The emergence of second generation knowledge management in engineering consulting

Abstract: Knowledge Management (KM) has matured in the sense that there is a widespread consensus that KM is much more than information systems. This contribution discusses how engineering consulting can transcend the first generation of relatively technical oriented support for knowledge management into integrating information systems and soft management tools such as organisation, training and office design. Utilising their respective strength in enabling knowledge production. Results from a study of an engineering consulting company, which has adopted a KM-strategy, are analysed. The first activities had a strong focus on IT. Later efforts however integrate the IT-component with a set of other tools. The experiences are discussed and two main conclusions drawn: First KM is enabled by a bundle of information systems as well as soft management tools. Second there is, in the bundled KM-strategies, still a relative overemphasis on "circumstantial" frames for knowledge production and too little focus on dynamics in knowledge producing processes, which in the engineering consulting company predominantly runs, in customer oriented projects, relatively decoupled from corporate management. The information system architecture might possibly need to continue to be bundled in a kind of forced best of breed strategy, since the construction industry operates with a strong element of temporary cooperation. Moreover it is characteristic that basic tools, such as spreadsheets, prove to be relatively powerful in supporting specific knowledge production. It is recom-mended to shape the second generation of knowledge management by focusing on communities of practices and their intersection in project pro-cesses. IT continues to play a balanced and synchronised role with other tools.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,102 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.017720) class.strategies (0.014695) class.software development (0.012093)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


M Bavafa, A Kiviniemi, L Weekes

Optimised Strategy by Utilising BIM and Set-based Design : Reinforced Concrete Slabs

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Series: w78:2012 (browse)
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N Suzuki, J Akiba, J R Whorlow

A Study on Effective Construction Management Utilising Civil Information Modeling/Management (CIM)

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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