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Andersson N

Re-engineering of the project planning processstrategic implementation of project management software

Abstract: This paper presents a model for re-engineering of the project planning process frombeing manually performed to be computer supported. The primary objective of thisstudy is to facilitate the implementation of project management software packages inorder to make use of the full potential of the software. Earlier studies show that thecurrent use of computer supported planning among project managers of buildingprojects is focused on print-out of schedules and the use of more advanced planningfunctions is limited. This study shows that only education and support is notsufficiently for project managers to adopt computer supported planning. Successfulimplementation of project management software also requires clear objectives of thecomputer supported planning and specified requirements and requisite level ofplanning details. This paper presents an approach on a strategic implementation ofcomputer supported project planning on basis of the surplus values related to the useof project management software. The results are based upon a case study at one ofSweden's largest construction companies.

Keywords: Computer support, project management, project managers, project planning,scheduling, software implementation, software support, surplus value.

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Full text: content.pdf (61,829 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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B Otjacques & F Feltz

Characterizing the visualization techniques of project-related interactions

Abstract: All construction projects can be considered as cooperative undertakings. Their strategic management as well as the daily operations causes numerous interactions to occur, either among persons or among persons and resources. These interactions have been studied from various viewpoints but few researchers have focused on their visualization. The graphical representation of the cooperation is however a powerful tool to help the project participants to get a correct understanding of the situation. This paper proposes thus a structuring framework (IVF - Interaction Visualization Framework) of the visualization techniques used to display such interactions. Three basic axes of classification are used to structure the study. Which objects are visualized? Why are they visualized? How are they visualized? For each axis, several properties have been identified and the admitted values have been specified. This work can be considered as a first step towards a structured view of the 'visualization of cooperation' domain.

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Full text: content.pdf (472,033 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Bellot Matas I

BECOC: a knowledge bank and its use in construction and CAD systems

Abstract: The development of the BECOC prototype (Structured Knowledge Bank for Construction Elements) was undertaken in order to test the integration of Data and Knowledge using the SITEC model (Construction Technology Information System). After the graphical definition of a building exterior, the assignment of the construction solutions is dynamically controled using the Knowledge Bank for real time decision making. To represent the knowledge that acts on the data the knowledge bank consists of an Object Oriented Data Base and a Rule System, developed using the NEXPERT/OBJECT package. In this manner it is possible to establish relationships among properties, concepts, restrictions in values, structural relations and the control of standards compliance, which in this case has been limited to thermic, acoustic and weight requirements. The system helps the user to take decisions and it analyses the context in order to make the deductions needed to maintain internal data consistency. The positive results of this work indicate the way €or further developments, and demonstrate that expert systems and traditional technologies coupled together can be effective and give the desired answers in monitoring design in the everyday problems in construction technology.

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Full text: content.pdf (977,770 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.066751) class.analysis (0.031103) class.synthesis (0.023636)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Carter G, Smith S

IT tool for construction site safety management

Abstract: The UK construction industry kills some 80 employees per year. This corresponds to a fatal accident rate of roughly 4.4 per 100,000 employees. Furthermore, major injury and 3-day injury rates are approximately 400 and 900 per 100,000 employees, respectively. Figures for the rest of Europe are similar, if not worse. It has long been realised that the reduction of hazardous events is fundamental to good construction safety management because these events have the potential to cause accidents, which may result in injuries and fatalities. However, there have been examples within the industry where hazard identification and the subsequent assessment of risk have been carried out by people ill equipped to identify all the hazards, assess their risks and suggest appropriate responses. Our research aim is to develop a knowledge-based system to aid in site safety management. The system will consist of a centralised database containing the combined knowledge and experience of all personnel within the company. This database is accessed via a user interface, which takes the form of a dynamic data-driven website and consists of four main applications that focus on the main areas of site safety management. The first application concerns creating and maintaining a company risk log, which can be used to identify hazards, assess risk, establish adequate hazard responses and report risk reduction performance. The second application is intended to aid in the method statement preparation process. Hazard referencing to tasks within the methodology and assigning significance values to tasks based upon assessed risk are the main features of this application, which should improve the level of hazard identification and enhance safe systems of work on site. Our system relies heavily upon historical data to provide an objective and dynamic evaluation of risk, rather than current subjective and static estimations of risk using the traditional method of risk matrices. Thus the other two applications are concerned mainly with entering data from accident reports and site safety tours into the central database. The other function of these applications will be to perform detailed analysis of accident causes, which will help safety managers to better respond to hazards to prevent future accidents. We are currently at the stage of developing a prototype version of the system. Field trials will be conducted between February and May for validation of the prototype. Validation will take the form of analysing method statements and risk assessments before and after implementation if the system to determine its effect on improving hazard identification, the assessment of risk, hazard response and accident rates. Qualitative evaluation will also be carried out. Questionnaires to, and interviews with, safety managers will give an indication of the usefulness of the system from a management and operational perspective. Doing the same thing with site foremen and operatives will allow us to determine the effectiveness of the outputs of the system, i.e. method statements and risk assessments, in enhancing safe systems of work.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,139,352 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026762) class.social (0.018951) class.impact (0.007440)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Chang T W, Woodbury R

Geometric typed feature structures: carrying geometric information using typed feature structures

Abstract: This paper explores Geometric Typed Feature Structures as a concept for carrying geometric information based on the theory of Typed Feature Structures[Carpenter, 1992]. Geometric Typed Feature Structures cover an important aspect of design space explorers in which the symbol level representation must carry 3D geometric information. Order Types are the devices in Geometric Typed Feature Structures that carry the continuous infinite domain information, that is, geometry. In this paper, theories and algorithms are applied to two kinds of Order type examples for carrying numerical values and geometric information. We describe the requirements as well as the conditions in which an Order Type can be specified and synchronized with other domain knowledge. We show two examples of Order Types: lifted reals and IGOSet intervals based on the theory of Geometric Typed Feature Structures. In each example, we outline the mathematics linking it to the theory of Order Types.

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Full text: content.pdf (368,172 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.015180) class.analysis (0.006844) class.social (0.006257)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Christiansson P, Svidt K, Ove Skjarbek J, Aaholm R

User requirements modelling and design of collaborative virtual reality design systems

Abstract: Advanced Information Technology today gives us the opportunity to implement sophisticated distributed systems for collaborative design. Persons with different interests and competencies in the building process such as architects, installation engineers, structural engineers, clients, builders can all at least theoretically be brought together in a distributed design space where a virtual building will be designed, build, and functionally evaluated. A design space build in a virtual reality environment will enable us to realistically and efficiently simulate the form, function, and construction of the building object under consideration. In this connection we made the following definition of a Virtual Workspace. 'The Virtual Workspace, VW, is actually the new design room designed to fit new and existing design routines. VW may well be a mixed reality environment. The VW will host all design partners from project start with different access and visibility (for persons and groups) in space and time to the project, and will promote building up shared values in projects. The VW thus acts as a communication space with project information support in adapted appearances. VW gives access to general and specific IT-tools ' The paper presents experiences from the early phases of user requirements formulations and design of such collaborative design spaces. The findings are mainly based on collaborative university and consultant engineering company work done in the EU project 'Distributed Virtual Workspace for enhancing Communication within the Construction Industry - DIVERCITY' as well as experiences from student collaboration in distributed learning environments and earlier research within the area. It is extremely important to bridge the gap between the user requirements specifications and the actual interface design and implementation of the underlying operational models of the distributed virtual workspace system. This is certainly true as we actually design a new type of design artefact that will highly influence the traditional working methods and integration of design resources. The early conceptual design of the virtual workspace follows the so called Contextual Design methodology which gives input to the subsequent data modelling work and implementation in an object oriented web distributed environment. The method used is described and examples on resulting Work Models (work flow, sequence and artefact models) are presented and commented on.

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Full text: content.pdf (634,867 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.065624) class.deployment (0.022154) class.environment (0.022092)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Drogemuller R M, Smith J

Integrating the building procurement process using knowledge based technology

Abstract: Computer based methods for facilitating building procurement have been proposed for over twenty years, but progress on such systems has been slow. This paper describes a project built around a three dimensional computer model of the building to be constructed, Knowledge based techniques are used to build up the level of detail required at each stage of development. Data entry requirements are minimised since only the information unique to the project need be entered. Standard information is stored as default values from previous similar projects. The user interface is simple, with a combination of menus to control the flow of information and dialogues to enter textual information. An ‘intelligent’ CAD interface is used to enter the building geometry. The system has been developed around the design and construction of detached houses, but the principles demonstrated are relevant across the standard building types. In its current form the user can access the geometric and spatial parameters of the building, derive costing data and perform thermal analyses. There is an option to export scheduling information to an eaernal CPM program. This furnishes the basis for planning the construction activities. The flexibility of the system indicates that knowledge based systems are a viable technology for assisting construction management.

Keywords: knowledge based systems; knowledge based estimating; multi-expert system; geometric reasoning; Prolog

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Full text: content.pdf (594,574 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Euthimios Glymis, Athanasios Kanelakis, Georgios Aretoulis and Theodoros Mastoras

Predicting Highway Projects' Actual Duration Using Neural Networks

Abstract: The current study predicts the actual duration of highway projects, based on the initial planned schedule. Highway projects suffer from delays and deviations, which in Greece are more often associated with law disputes, project financing, archaeological findings, environmental issues and private land acquisition procedures. In this research, data were obtained from 37 road projects in Greece and the purpose was to estimate the construction duration, using an artificial neural network. The Fast Artificial Neural Network (FANN) Tool program was used. FANN based on the available data, identifies the optimal training algorithm. The training algorithm and the activation function with the lowest mean square error (MSE) are selected. In order to achieve the best possible solution, numerous trials were made, applying different input data combinations, different variations in the architecture of the network, and different data values were used. This paper presents the three more reliable and effective networks produced from the current study. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks, employing the appropriate parameters do provide a relatively high accuracy in predicting actual construction time and more specifically appear as one of the most optimal methods for actual highway construction time prediction.

Keywords: Highway Projects, Actual Project Duration, Estimated Project Duration, Artificial Neural Networks

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0260

Full text: content.pdf (758,236 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Franklyn Chukwunonso

EVALUATING ICT FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIAN

Abstract: Higher education is approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT), plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. Every institution of higher learning uses computers in their educational programs. In many institutions, this information technology (IT) revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place. The potential educational uses of the Internet and World Wide Web add urgency to the need for institutional policies that protect the interest of participants while assuring the best educational use of these expensive resources. But one cannot be sure that all the new computers and networks appearing in classrooms will really make a difference for learners. It is still uncertain that the money and time invested in them makes a difference. What criteria to be used and how to measure success are some of the questions that raise additional questions about differences in the way we use technologies. For every success story, there are other stories about problems or unanticipated negative effects. It is so often observed that new technologies remain underused or misused. These are some of the issues this paper will consider with respect to information technology and technological values, virtues and developments in tertiary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: ICT, Information and Communication Technology, Information Technology, IT, Evaluating ICT, Effective Implementation of ICt, Nigeria, Nigerian Tertiary Institutions, Nigerian Universities, Nigerian Education, Tertiary Institutions, Tertiary Education, Universities

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Full text: content.doc (76,288 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Franklyn Chukwunonso

EVALUATING ICT FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION IN TERTIARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIAN

Abstract: Higher education is approaching the point at which Science and Technology particularly Information and Communication Technology (ICT), plays a part in nearly all phases of the educational process. Every institution of higher learning uses computers in their educational programs. In many institutions, this information technology (IT) revolution has taken place without institutional policies in place. The potential educational uses of the Internet and World Wide Web add urgency to the need for institutional policies that protect the interest of participants while assuring the best educational use of these expensive resources. But one cannot be sure that all the new computers and networks appearing in classrooms will really make a difference for learners. It is still uncertain that the money and time invested in them makes a difference. What criteria to be used and how to measure success are some of the questions that raise additional questions about differences in the way we use technologies. For every success story, there are other stories about problems or unanticipated negative effects. It is so often observed that new technologies remain underused or misused. These are some of the issues this paper will consider with respect to information technology and technological values, virtues and developments in tertiary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Internet, WWW, Evaluating, ICT, Information Technology, Nigeria, Tertiary, Education, Implementation

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