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Aaron Costin and Charles Eastman

Requirements for Ontology Development in the AECO Industry

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses the requirements needed for the development of ontologies in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) Industry. With the increase of information modeling for all aspects of a construction project with a variety of software tools and technologies, there has been a major need of communication and exchange of information. An approach to improve seamless information exchanges is the use of ontologies. One major benefit of using ontologies is that the information and knowledge defined in the ontologies can be shared across domains. However, to do so requires standardized rules and requirements in order to share and promote reuse at the domain level. Significantly, with the increased demand of ontologies in the AECO industry, there needs to be standardization and consensus in the development and use of the ontologies to ensure the seamless transfer of information as well as realizing the full benefits of ontologies.

Keywords: Ontology, Information Exchange, Semantics, Logic, Taxonomy, AECO Industry

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0149

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Full text: content.pdf (323,448 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Andrew P. McCoy, Robert Schubert, Robert Dunay, Joe Wheeler

lumenHAUS: Uses and Benefits of ICT for Design-Build Educational Environments

Abstract: By many accounts, American classrooms are not using the most effective means to properly educate and train young graduates and professionals. Common goals involve educational achievement and market advantage for students, with a wide variety of proposed solutions. Among the many solutions, technology in the classroom environment has been touted as one route for translating academic goals to the market. Education in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is no different: a rise in industry and classroom technology, paired with enrollment, justifies the need to re-focus solutions from technology to provide for the academic and market needs in the built environment. The recent Virginia Tech 2009 Solar Decathlon Competition (VTSD) offered an ideal setting for better understanding effective uses of technology in the translation of these AEC goals. VTSD was a student-led, integrated classroom environment incorporating students of all disciplines in the design and construction of an energy-efficient home. Information and communication technologies (ICT) played a major role in the educational and competitive efforts, all of which could translate to market advantage. This paper aims to explore academic uses and benefits of ICT for increased market acceptance through: 1) presenting common goals to the classroom, design-build education and the 2009 Solar Decathlon competition, 2) presenting various forms of ICT used to accomplish these goals and 3) presenting preliminary results of a survey of market acceptance for incorporated technologies.

Keywords: IT Supported Architectural and Engineering Design, Communication and Collaboration Technologies, Model Based Management Tools and Systems, Building Information Modeling

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Appelqvist I, Keiljer U

Building integrity - interactions between building parts, systems and the actors of the building process

Abstract: Many of the problems concerning poor effectivity, low quality and increased cost in the building process pertain to the area of interaction between building parts, elements, spaces and systems. The industrialisation of the building industry requires a more profound understanding of these interactions. An increasing number of actors and suppliers are involved in the building process which implies interactions related to the organisation of the process. Thus, the interaction problems do not confine themselves to physical parts and technical issues. The organisation of the process, responsibilities and liabilities of consultants, subcontractors and other actors contribute to the growing implications of the variety of interactions that constitute the problem in its whole. An analysis of the general problem, which has been addressed as Building Integrity, BI, has commenced From a systems design point of view, BI is related to the ongoing research on building modelling, which is discussed briefly.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,870,258 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.041949) class.social (0.017435) class.analysis (0.010768)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Charles Woodward, Jani Lahti, Jukka Rönkkö, Petri Honkamaa, Mika Hakkarainen, Jani Jäppinen, Kari Rainio, Sanni Siltanen, Jouko Hyväkkä

Case digitalo – a range of virtual and augmented reality solutions in construction application

Abstract: We describe a range of Virtual and Augmented Reality (VR/AR) solutions applied during the planning and construction of VTT’s new head offices, the Digitalo (“Digital House”) in Espoo, Finland. During the building phase as well as in later evaluations 2003-2006, the various approaches used for Digitalo’s visualisation included: radiosity rendering by still images; immersive virtual reality visualisation; mobile outdoors augmenting; augmented scale model; augmented web camera; 3D landscapes; and interior design by means of virtual and augmented reality. We employed various display devices ranging from HMD video glasses to CAVE screens, and from PDA’s to varying kinds of PC solutions. Some of our solutions, for example the augmented web camera and scale model systems, have not been previously presented and they appear here for the first time. Also, we describe the current status of the applied methods, as well as directions for future research. Altogether, we believe this case study to be among the most comprehensive ones in the world to include such a wide variety VR/AR techniques applied in a single building project.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, CAVE, HMD, web cameras, mobile computing, feature detection, markers, tracking, tangible user interfaces

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Christensen L C, Christiansen T R, Jin Y, Kunz J, Levitt R E

Extending enterprise modeling beyond engineering - a life cycle model of hydraulic systems

Abstract: In our work on enterprise engineering we are concerned with developing a fiamework and methodology for modeling real world enterprise. Our primary concern is that the resulting enterprise models should give insight into the operation of today's enterprise, and allow systematic studies to predict likely effects of proposed changes. Last year, at the CIB W78 workshop in Helsinki, we presented an initial overview of CAESAR, an architecture for enterprise modeling in the AEC industry. CAESAR addresses the Objectives, Product, Process and Organization (OPPO) aspects of enterprise, and covers the complete life-cycle, including requirements specification, conceptual design, detailed engineering, approval, fabrication/ installation, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. This year we apply the CAESAR framework to develop a simple model of a hydraulic system for oil production facilities. Such hydraulic systems are used for a variety of control tasks on offshore platforms, where different users have a range of different functional and operational requirements. We use the hydraulic system model to derive measures of coordination load, which may be used as input to simulate project execution as a set of information processing tasks. The Virtual Design Team OT) discrete event simulator is used to predict changes in development schedule and life-cycle cost due to changes in scheduling and execution of design and development.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,091,173 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.017132) class.impact (0.011087) class.economic (0.007888)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Couzens A, Thorpe T, Skitmore M

Executive information system for construction contract ridding decisions

Abstract: This paper describes the development of an integrated Executive Information System (EIS) for supporting construction executives and senior managers strategic information requirements. The system focuses on the provision of organisational and external market information for contract bidding decisions. The system uses a proprietary microcomputer based EIS development environment to access ' synthetic ' data structures representing the LAN architecture of a typical construction firm. This paper explains the theory and technologies related to the development of such systems. This is followed by a general discussion of the analysis techniques adopted for development and definition of the system. The bulk of the paper relates to a description of the proposed prototype system and its application. The system itself serves as a nucleus for access to a variety of data providing strategic information for contract bidding decisions. The development methodologies and the resulting prototype serve as a template for development of similar EIS and Visual Information Access (VIA) systems in a wider executive and senior manager information support role.

Keywords: contract bidding; tender adjudication; strategic information; executive support system; information scanning

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Full text: content.pdf (971,598 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Daoud Kiomjian, F. Jordan Srour and Issam Srour

Using ABM to Evaluate the Impact of Social Networks on Construction Labor Productivity

Abstract: Labour productivity depends on a wide variety of factors, some of which pertain to characteristics of the construction crews themselves. Several of these factors such as language and demographics are described in the literature as soft or intangible and are of stochastic nature. As such, traditional deterministic modelling techniques are not sufficient to capture the full picture of the factors that come into play when considering construction labour productivity. Agent based modelling (ABM), a simulation technique with growing popularity, presents a powerful candidate for modelling construction sites due to its properties and ability to consider social aspects. This paper demonstrates that ABM is an acceptable paradigm for studying the effect of both tangible and soft features on construction labour productivity.

Keywords: Labour Productivity, Agent Based Modelling, Social Networks, Simulation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0112

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Daum S,Borrmann A

Checking spatio-semantic consistency of building information models by means of a query language

Abstract: One of the characteristic features of object-based Building Information Models is the close integration of geometric and semantic information into one model. This concept is thoroughly implemented by the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a comprehensive data model designed to provide a sound foundation for complex data exchange scenarios. Besides the provision of a large variety of data types for capturing the semantics of building elements and spaces, the IFC also makes it possible to define relationships between building elements and/or spaces, respectively. In particular, a spatial aggregation hierarchy can be modeled by successively applying the relationship IfcRelAggregates to space objects. However, no validation options currently exist to check whether the semantically defined aggregation hierarchy complies with the geometric setup of the individual spaces and building elements. This lack of consistency between the semantic and the geometric part of the BIM model may lead to serious data interpretation errors at the receiving end. To prevent this, we propose a new method for validating spatio-semantic consistency based on the usage of the Query Language for Building Information Models (QL4BIM) which on the one hand provides a means of accessing the IFC object model and on the other hand provides high-level spatial operators, such as Disjoint, Touching and Containing. The formulation of corresponding queries makes it possible to verify the spatio-semantic consistency of the IFC model. The paper discusses application scenarios and provides a number of relevant examples.

Keywords: BIM,IFC,Topology,Validation,Consistency,Spatial Relationships

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Debras P

Construction application of a gen-network : uniform access to standards, products and company information

Abstract: "Facing an increasing competitive environment where flexibility and adaptability to change are the obliged route to success, building and construction companies have to continuously renew their working habits while keeping business processes under quality, time and cost control. In the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain, the wide diversity in terms of the object built, but also associated to the geographical dispersion of actors and building sites makes such an agility even more crucial. Considering the design and tendering phase of a construction operation, the architects and construction engineers have to efficiently select the manufactured products that will best suit the project while complying to its numerous constraints. Beyond the functionality, performance and cost characteristics, a suitable product has also to conform to the applying regulations and standards, be eventually accompanied with a corresponding technical agreement, offer acceptable delivery solutions on the building site. Moreover, once identified within a manufacturer catalogue, the product has to be integrated into the architect or engineer application desktop, whether it be a CAD, specification writer or quantity take-off application. Addressing these needs, the Global Engineering Networking (GEN) initiative is promoting the reuse of company internal and external engineering knowledge through the emergence of new kind of global market places where actors publish and retrieve on-line a wide range of engineering information and services. In particular, The Construction Pilot in EP 22 284 GENIAL project demonstrates over the AEC domain, the relevance of new generation of Information Technology infrastructures supporting the erection of Value-Added Service Provider (VASP) sites that materialise the GEN vision, i.e. allowing information and services to smoothly be retrieved where required whilst the succeeding company is concentrating on its core competencies. With such an infrastructure, whether it is through material, performances, manufacturer, regulation or price discrimination, the appropriate component, document or service is rapidly and cost effectively brought on the designer desk for the best value of the overall project. On the other side of the communication pipe, the supplying partner gains the opportunity of reaching an enlarged audience as IT now commonly break any geographical distance. In practice, three major information publishers and a building contractor in Europe initiate the GEN network in the AEC domain through the erection of VASP sites offering product, company or document related information. User queries are governed by various standard (EPIC, UNICLASS) or corpus specific (BATIBASE, EDIBATEC) classification systems. Relevance of the overall approach is demonstrated through the presentation of a large variety of such queries for the various information corpuses used : Techcom company and product information, BIC company, product and document, REEF regulation documentary corpus or EDIBATEC product information."

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Full text: content.pdf (748,881 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.032376) class.retrieve (0.019963) class.roadmaps (0.012591)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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