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Andreas Kunz, Stefan Dehlin, Tommaso Piazza, Morten Fjeld, and Thomas Olofsson

Collaborative Whiteboard: Towards Remote Collaboration and Interaction in Construction Design

Abstract: The need for improved interaction and sharing of information in construction projects has grown significantly in recent years, especially as projects have become ever more complex.The early design stage is of particular importance for the final results as most of the building lifecycle characteristics are committed at this stage and the opportunity to influence them decreases rapidly as the cost of making changes, or correcting design errors, increases dramatically. Recent advances in information technology offer methods and tools to meet this need. In view of this, CollaBoard – an interactive whiteboard for remote collaboration – was developed to support mixed, geographically distributed teams. Interconnected via a network, two or more system setups allow users to interact and share information over a common interactive vertical whiteboard. Superimposing the live video of the remote partner – “people on content” – also allows the transfer of Meta information such as gestures, et cetera; resulting in a more intuitively distributed collaborative teamwork. Based on technology such as CollaBoard, the envisioned outcome of our research is a system allowing experts from different disciplines to integrate and optimize lifecycle-related parameters into a new product. The resulting system will allow each expert to adjust his/her own set of parameters, giving access to a large database through intuitive interfaces. This article also discusses possible areas of application with focus on early design, recommends future development needs and provides a brief comparison to existing and state-of the-art systems. The development work includes interdisciplinary research and development and interdisciplinary collaboration between academia and industry.

Keywords: design process, lifecycle, remote collaboration, visualization technology, whiteboard

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Full text: content.pdf (158,968 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Belevicius R, Valentinavicius S, Weener R J

Optimisation of grillage-type foundations

Abstract: The mathematical models for optimisation of grillage-type foundations are presented. Minimising ofmaximum in absolute value vertical reactive force, bending moment, and reaction-bending momenttogether is sought employing methods of finite elements, analytical sensitivity analysis, andmathematical programming. Present models and computer code are implemented in the softwareMatrixFrame. Solutions of a number of problems demonstrate the validity of proposed algorithms.

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Full text: content.pdf (233,114 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Bergsten S, Knutsson M

4D CAD- an efficient tool to improve production method for integration of apartments in existing buildings

Abstract: This paper describes an ongoing research project on application of a 4D CAD tool for design and production planning of vertical extensions of existing buildings (over-roofing) in Stockholm city, for creation of a more densely populated city as the demand for apartments in the city centre increases. 4D CAD is a concept, which combines an object oriented 3D CAD model with time. 4D CAD is a kind of information visualisation that is easier to understand than traditional methods, such as 2D drawings and time schedules, which are used to manage construction projects. 4D CAD is a logical way of imaging a construction management tool. It is a tool that is conceptually much closer to an intuitive picture of a construction process than 2D drawings and time schedules. The 4D concept is developed at Stanford University and to support the concept researchers at Stanford have developed a prototype that is being used in some complex construction projects in California. The focus of the research project Integration of apartments in existing buildings by use of Light Gauge Steel Framing, which this paper is a part of it, is to improve production methods in order to reduce design, planning and construction time for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings in the city centres. A way to improve the production methods is by utilising a 4D planning process in combination with industrialised production of building components. Extensions to existing buildings are due to the demand for new apartments in attractive locations in the city centres and shortage of land for housing in city centres. The Light Gauge Steel constructions have many benefits for conversions of, and extensions to existing buildings. According to research results the Light Gauge Steel Framing system is suitable for industrial production. This building system results in a very light weight building compared with traditional materials e.g. concrete which makes it suitable for over-roofing extensions. The materials used in the Light Gauge Steel Systems is thin steel members, plaster boards and mineral wool. Many of the problems, which occur during vertical extensions of existing buildings today, are solved when they are discovered, that is sometimes on the site. Some examples of these problems are poor compatibility between the existing building (structural components and material) and the Light Gauge Steel Framing, detail solutions of the building components, shafts and piping for ventilation, water, sewage and drainage etc. It is less expensive to discover and to correct errors at an early stage compared to solving them on the site. Further a lot of construction time will be saved, which will decrease the disturbance on existing surroundings. Several problems have to be considered in the planning process in order to minimise the disturbance on existing activities and surroundings. This could be done by the use of a 4D CAD planning tool. An over-roofing project located in the city means that the land to use during the production period is limited and expensive. Thereby is the logistic to and from the site more complicated. Consequently the site management and logistic of building components to the building site and their storage on the site is most important. In fact the 4D concept is an efficient planning tool to organise the logistic of the site during the planning phase instead of as today during the production. The site layout can be simulated and visualised with a 4D CAD tool for the actors in the project which in particular will help the site engineer to organise the activities, material flow and site logistic. The value of using the 4D CAD concept is studied by comparing the traditional planning process of a number of over-roofing projects in Sweden with the planning process of the 4D CAD concept. This paper discusses how a 4D CAD tool together with an industrialised production method can be used for improving the production process for an over-roofing project in order to reduce the construction time and with secured quality. The reader will understand and appreciate the added value in form of a more efficient way of managing construction projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (708,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.022264) class.impact (0.010607) class.software development (0.010605)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Bjrk B-C

Document management - a key IT technology for the construction industry

Abstract: The IT infrastructure of today offers excellent opportunities for the construction industry to workmore efficiently by managing its documents in a digital form on the Internet. Nevertheless IT has sofar had more effect on the production of documents than on their efficient transfer and retrieval. Inthis paper the historical developments in construction computing over the last decades are outlined;how technical innovations such as photocopying, the fax, the personal computer, local areanetworks and finally the Internet have effected the production, storage, duplication and transfer ofinformation. Key features in current web based document systems are shortly described, withspecial emphasis on alternative search methods such as hierarchical folders or meta datarepositories. The integration of document management systems with other Internet based ASPservicesin vertical construction industry portals is also discussed. The paper finishes by outliningsome current trends, which seem to be leading towards the survival of a few dominant systems.

Keywords: Construction, document management, Internet, ASP

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Full text: content.pdf (361,292 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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G Zimmermann & G Suter

A multi-floor topology to geometry transformation procedure based on shape functions

Abstract: Building floor plans are often outlined as schematics with zero wall thickness. Using shape functions, wall dimensions and circulation areas can be inserted and more detailed drawings generated. This topology-to-geometry transformation does not solve vertical constraints in multi-floor topologies, as for example the alignment of load bearing walls. The paper shows how dissection based rectangular floor plans can be modified by introducing space area extensions to resolve the vertical constraints. Penalty values can be introduced to control the distribution of area extensions. The algorithm is based on defining constraints between nodes of the dissection tree. In the presence of multiple constraints, several passes through the dissection tree may be necessary. The topology-to-geometry transformation is used in every pass to check if the constraints can be fulfilled. The algorithm is demonstrated with an example.

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Full text: content.pdf (215,962 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


Hannus M

From research to practice

Abstract: The paper summarizes some research efforts in areas relating to product modeling and the implementation of results in commercial software developments. A national industry standard for 2D CAD data exchange is described. The concept is based on an extremely compact neutral file format. programs for commercial CAD/CAM-systems have been developed as well as software to interface CAD with management information systems of the manufacturing companies. Also a number of vertical application relating to data exchange have been developed . A standard for product data definition for precast concrete elements has been developed. The specification has been implemented for data exchange between design and manufacturing and also for vertical CAD-systems. A national research and development project focusing on product modeling of buildings and the implications of it for practical activities is described. Product modeling concepts are implemented in various other development efforts across the building industry. Vertical CAD-systems for concrete and steel structures are described. These systems have been founded on the product modeling approach. A number of translator

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Full text: content.pdf (1,938,588 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.037684) class.represent (0.032440) class.synthesis (0.017340)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Howard R, Petersen E

Monitoring Communication in Partnering Projects

Abstract: This report is a summary of a two year research project carried out by the IT byg group at BYG. DTU for the Danish government agencies Erhvervsfremmestyrelsen and By- og Bolig-ministeriet. The objectives were to collect data on the use of IT by the PPB housing consortia, a development project to test out various innovations, to map communications between the partners, and compare IT usage with their original proposals. Data was collected on communications in housing projects in the period June 1999- Aug 2000. The original PPB proposals were made in 1994/5 but there have been breaks in the flow of projects, and information technology has gone through much change since then. Use of Email has taken over from post and fax, and Project Webs have been developed in most consortia. Consortium members' policies have dominated the choice of management and logistics software, restricted compatibility in the consortia, and limited willingness to share data. Greater involvement by the client, and more sharing of equity, would have encouraged adoption of common IT systems and created more trust for data sharing between partners. PPB projects have allowed consortium members to test out new technologies but, in general, the IT systems used have been similar to those which the larger firms use elsewhere. Vertical integration has been limited by lack of experience and technology in smaller firms. In future, access to Project Webs from mobile devices should help use by all partners from any location. In all the projects studied, and in spite of the introduction of Email and Project Webs, the ratio of non-IT communications to IT varied from 0.8 to 4.6. When problems need to be solved rapidly there appears to be a tendency to revert to traditional means of communication - meetings, telephone and fax.

Keywords: communications, partnering, project web, social network analysis, housing

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/1 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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I David & SB Anim-Addo

Conceptual real-time multiphase flow modeling for complex NAPL remediation systems

Abstract: Groundwater data collection is done under statutory supervision and control in catchment. The storage, evaluation and utilization of groundwater and geo-strata information are of importance to the protection of the quality of water for industrial and other uses. The contamination of groundwater sources through immiscible fluids, including NAPLs, is of interest to current research. Equally important is the demand to quickly locate, demarcate and visualize these contaminated areas. This paper provides a structured modelling strategy for digital groundwater data assessment system (DGWDAS) for the 2D/3D visualisation of contaminated areas. This conceptual model forms a basis for a visualization tool for solutions to free-hydrocarbon recovery systems. The tool helps to visualize results of simulations on coupled stratified immiscible fluid flows of NAPL, that satisfy PDEs with coupling conditions on the sharp interface under steady-state flow, based on the assumption of vertical equilibrium. An informative visualization tool based on DGWDAS may also allow evaluation of the discharge, the heads, etc of the recovery system by given heads or discharges in the wells respectively. Additionally, the visualization tool, which is based on the n-Tier Software Architecture, may assist in environmental planning and management in the early stages of assessment of sensitive contaminated areas.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,461,457 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitt Dresden.


Llorenc Mejino, Llorenc Guilera

Integral treatment system for construction elements.SITEC project. classification structure

Abstract: The paper explains the way of structuring the information within the SITEC project. The model developed within these project studies the horizontal and vertical relationships and proposes a solution. The inner structure of the model is composed by attributes and clauses and the information is generated when it is needed avoiding the storage in the system. A retrieval system has been implemented in order to handle the information.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,448,570 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.019704) class.analysis (0.015753) class.processing (0.003980)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Patrick Suermann, Raja R.A. Issa

United States Air Force Milcon Transformation: Building Information Modeling Case Studies

Abstract: The United States Air Force manages approximately $2B of traditional military construction (MILCON) per year in a typical portfolio of 100-150 projects. In Fiscal Year, 2010, the Air Force’s MILCON authority having jurisdiction, the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) revised its standard design instruction to supplement how it managed and directed MILCON. One of the primary differences was a requirement for all vertical construction to be designed through a Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach. There were two pilot projects to assess Air Force BIM implementation. First, one project case study explored impact on typical MILCON project management practices. The HQ CENTCOM facility implemented a BIM-based approach on a standard design-bid-build project at MacDill Air Force Base, FL. A second project case study explored cutting edge research methodologies that used the BIM for facility optimization on a LEED-platinum facility. Specifically, the Tyndall Air Force Base Fitness Center targeted energy efficiency. The facility’s Electronic Management Control System (EMCS) monitored pure consumption, solar photovoltaic (PV) power meter pulse output, and solar hot water recovery systems using Digital Energy Monitors (DEM) tied to the BIM via an exported database file via the EMCS server. Lastly, AFCEE partnered with Onuma to manage and leverage their new BIM-based designs to afford greater collaboration from inception onward for USAF facilities worldwide. This research investigates owners’ lessons learned and designers’ experiences related with the initiative under MILCON Transformation, as well as the implications for shaping future USAF MILCON management and design optimization.

Keywords: Air Force, MILCON, BIM, Prototype, Collaboration, Control Systems

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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