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Junge R, Ammermann E

Product model based communication between applications

Abstract: One of the goals of so called intelligent IT surely is to come to solutions for computer systems and working environments that are close to the human kind of thinking and doing work. What are the implications of that goal on integrated IT solutions for AE? Not only since computers are in use of architects and engineers, the design team is trying to achieve the goal of an integrated design. The traditional integrated design process is based on communication between the persons forming the design team. The quality of the integration directly depends on the quality of the communication. This traditional communication process is done by exchanging sketches, drawings, calculations, descriptions and the spoken word. The design team consists of various specialized members, with very different engineering education and skills. This results in very specific technical terminologies and understanding of the meaning of the "design objects". How are these specialists able to communicate in spite of that for an outsider sometimes Babylonian confusion of tongues? ...

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Full text: content.pdf (729,639 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.033908) class.social (0.023290) class.collaboration (0.022267)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


K Joergensen

Classification of Building Object Types Misconceptions, challenges and opportunities

Abstract: Development of the existing classification systems has been very difficult and time consuming tasks, where many considerations have been taken and many compromises have been made. The results reveal that, although the theoretical foundation was clarified, many deviations and shortcuts have been made. This is certainly the case in the Danish development. Based on the theories about these abstraction mechanisms, the basic principles for classification systems are presented and the observed misconceptions are analyses and explained. Furthermore, it is argued that the purpose of classification systems has changed and that new opportunities should be explored. Some proposals for new applications are presented and carefully aligned with IT opportunities. Especially, the use of building modelling will give new benefits and many of the traditional uses of classification systems will instead be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models.Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types.

Keywords: classification, composition, taxonomy, building object, building model

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Kamat V, Martinez J

3D visualization of construction processes and products

Abstract: "Construction processes range from the relatively simple to the most complex. In the construction industry, complex decisions yielding maximum benefit are an essential component of process design and planning. Simulation modeling and Virtual reality are thus being increasingly used to help decision-makers make economically optimal decisions. Although many advances have been recently made in the area of construction process modeling (e.g. STROBOSCOPE), the Visualization/Animation aspect has mainly focused on the finished product (3D CAD) or on the product as it evolves through construction (4D CAD). Very little attention has been given to visualizing the construction process that leads to the end product, which includes temporary structures and materials, equipment and labor as they create the product. The process visualization/animation tools currently available commercially are restricted to two dimensions (e.g., Proof Animation), inherently lacking in the real world 3D capabilities that are indispensable for the realistic visualization of many construction operations. This paper describes on-going research at Virginia Tech that focuses on the development of a general-purpose, 3D and trace-driven visualization/animation system. This system enables visualization of both the construction process and the resulting product in 3D. The tool enables the easy creation of realistic 3D animations using CAD models from supported data file formats. The core of the work is a simple yet extremely robust set of animation commands, the capability to process sequences of these commands, and the ability to navigate effortlessly in 3-D space. The input to the program is an ASCII text file consisting of sequential command statements. This file can be generated automatically by a variety of simulation software tools such as STROBOSCOPE, which is currently being used to test the system. Due to the flexibility of the command set and the independence of the tool from any particular simulation modeling software, the system has numerous potential applications in fields other than construction, such as in the manufacturing and service industries. Construction simulation model developers will find this tool useful for debugging their model and verifying that analytical models indeed behave correctly."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,018,450 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.013438) class.represent (0.013296) class.economic (0.012086)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Karlsson H

Classification and coding, a necessary tool for the improving the information flow in the building process. Developments in Sweden and within CIB w4

Abstract: During the 20 minutes I have got at my disposal I will describe how we in Sweden today regard the need for tools for an improved information flow in the building process and how we try to solve our problems, I will also touch upon the relation of this work to international development work. The name of this session is ' Classification ' . We have got some critisism for that as it hints at a more restricted subject than really intended. The aim of the work described during the session is to improve the information flow in the building process. Classification and coding are important tools for the realization of that goal but only tools , not ends . The title 'Classification ' was chosen for brevity . Improving the information flow is something very practical and the consequences may even be described in dollars or pounds or whatever currency you choose. Also the way we try t o achieve our goals is down t o earth. You must during the whole development work have a close relation to the users of our results .

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Full text: content.pdf (2,530,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.023430) class.impact (0.022812) class.retrieve (0.015304)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Kathryn Davies, Suzanne Wilkinson and Dermott Mcmeel

Baby Steps with BIM – Learning to Walk the Talk

Abstract: Although there is a great deal of enthusiasm reported for companies to adopt BIM for improved project outcomes and industry productivity, the process of developing BIM expertise is not always an easy one. Project teams frequently come together with a very wide range of knowledge and differing levels of enthusiasm for taking on a BIM ‘experiment’. This paper details the BIM implementation process on two New Zealand projects undertaking BIM with largely inexperienced teams. Interviews were carried out with practitioners involved in the projects, who were largely “BIM positive”. Their narratives present an optimistic view of the BIM intentions, while still being realistic about problems that emerged. Issues for future consideration are identified. Most revolve around team communication factors and the importance of open and constructive relationships with all parties.

Keywords: BIM, Adoption, Implementation, Case Study

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0253

Full text: content.pdf (380,005 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Kathryn Davies

IT Barometer New Zealand Ė A Survey of Computer Use and Attitudes in the New Zealand Construction Industry

Abstract: Building productivity in New Zealand lags other countries and industries which invest more heavily in technology. Improved productivity of the construction sector is widely touted as a significant factor in boosting the performance of the country as a whole. Application of IT has for some time been hailed as the key to implementing such productivity gains. International initiatives such as BuildSmart and Integrated Design & Delivery Solutions (IDDS) are very strongly oriented around improving construction through IT. To use their findings, and to allow informed decision making in IT investment, development and education, the New Zealand construction industry needs more information on the current state of IT use.This paper reports on a national survey undertaken in 2009/2010, based on the IT Barometer questionnaire. Elements of a 1997 New Zealand survey of construction IT use, were also incorporated to allow longitudinal analysis.The target population was the construction and facility management sector, in this case including the whole of New Zealand. A wide range of professions fall into this population, including architects (architectural designers and draughtspersons); technical consultants (engineers, quantity surveyors, project managers); contractors and sub-contractors; property owners and managers; and the materials industry (manufacturers and suppliers). The questionnaire was delivered to 388 companies, and 81 completed responses were received, a response rate of 21%.Results show that while most companies use computers, for many it is primarily a business tool for administrative functions, rather than a tool in the construction process. Use of specialist construction-focused programs has increased, however, and interest in project webs is also growing. A fundamental barrier to increased use of IT is the cost of investment, with several respondents commenting that this is due to the staff time and disruption involved and not simply the financial cost of the hardware and software required.

Keywords: survey, IT barometer, computer use, New Zealand

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Full text: content.pdf (239,646 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Kazi, A.S., Hannus, M., Laitinen, J. and Nummelin, O.

Distributed Engineering In Construction: Findings from the IMS GLOBEMEN Project

Abstract: Inter-enterprise collaboration to deliver a one-of-a-kind product is gaining momentum with the emergence of new information and communications technologies (ICT) to support information exchange and collaborative work amongst distinct geographically dispersed entities. Typically, the modus operandi of such collaborations is that of the virtual enterprise. While relatively new to some industries, this has been a common mode of operation for the construction industry for long. ICT support for the construction industry to support its ways and modes of operation has however been lacking. While organisation specific proprietary tools do exist, those supporting inter-enterprise collaboration are not up to a similar par. This paper presents the IMS GLOBEMEN (Global Engineering and Manufacturing in Enterprise Networks) and some of its core findings and developments related to reference architecture for virtual enterprises and primarily distributed engineering in construction. After an overall presentation of the GLOBEMEN project, and some basics of inter-enterprise collaboration, the paper presents the main elements of the Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (VERAM) through identification of its main components and their constituents. This is followed by an exploration of distributed engineering. In this section the focus is on building construction where some very high level use cases are presented. The section is concluded with a presentation of an ICT architecture at both generic and specific levels for distributed engineering at large and product model based distributed engineering in construction in particular respectively.

Keywords: inter-enterprise collaboration, virtual enterprise, distributed engineering, construction.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/10/paper.pdf (available to registered users only)

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Kenji Ito

An object-oriented pproject model approach for integrated information system in A/WC industry

Abstract: As clients' requests are becoming more diverse and extensive than ever, it is necessary to concentrate compony whole efforts and to fortify cooperation among different divisions in the A/E/C industry. In the past development of information systems, was basic focused on increasing efficency of particular domain tasks, and was not enough to respond current problems. Therefore, a new method of developing collaborative and integrated informaton systems is required to synthesize resources in order to achieve total efficiency. However, it is difficult to generate, share and maintain project data during the various phases of the A/E/C project life cycle from planning to design, construction and management of the facility. The project data needs to be stored, retrieved, manipulated, and updated by many project participants, each with his/her own view of the information. In order to realize the model description of an A/E/Cproject, such a project model should support both product-based description and process-based description. Therefore the author has been proposed an object- oriented project model (called PMAPM) supporting the multiple views that are required by various participants in A/E/C pojects, which is very important for integration of the A/E/C industry. The scope of this research is to establish an object-oriented project model supporting multiple views shared by various A/E/C project participants and provide several type of sub-product model for by computer-based systems using multiple views. The objective is the eventual development of an integrated system which includes activities from project planning through design, estimation, construction and facility management. The object-oriented project model is intended to link CAD systems, relational databases, knowledge-based expert systems and other conventional software. This paper describes the development, present status and future directions for PMAPM, an object-oriented project model designed to facilitate infonnation sharing along the paths through which workflows between project stages or specialists.

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Full text: content.pdf (280,489 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.029631) class.software development (0.026600) class.communication (0.020650)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kumar V S S, Hanna A S, Natarajan P

Application of fuzzy linear programming in construction projects

Abstract: In classical optimization model, the objective function and the constraints are represented very precisely under certainty. However, many of the constraints are externally controlled and the variations cannot be predicted to a reliable extent. This may cause difficulties in representing these interacting variables for optimization. To overcome these limitations, Zimmerman's fuzzy logic approach is applied for optimization in this paper. Here, the embedding simulation results are used as inputs to a fuzzy linear programming model to soften the notion of "constraints" and "objective function." This approach will acknowledge and postulate that the objective function and the constraints are of the same nature and the distinction between them is gradual rather than abrupt. An application of this integrated approach to a case study demonstrates the efficacy of this flexible algorithm in dealing with qualitative factors in a more meaningful way than classical linear programming. One of the main advantages of this method is that it can be easily implemented in the existing computer programs for optimization.

Keywords: finear programming, fuzzy sets, tolerance limits, fuzzy goals, fuzzy constraints

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Full text: content.pdf (325,376 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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L Rischmoller & E Valle

Using 4D in a new ""2D + time"" Conceptualization""

Abstract: This paper describes a system that combines a 2D digital board that shows dynamically in rows and columns arranged in a special layout, starting and finishing dates of subcontractors work linked to the fourth dimension, time, coming from construction schedules. The system is the result of a research project whose objective is to improve planning, scheduling, and controlling the work of subcontractors of finishings in building projects. The system will be tested on case studies projects for planning, scheduling and controlling the work of subcontractors. It is expected that the systems will act as a powerful real time Visualization, Planning, Analysis and Communication Tool in the case studies. Despite the 3D case studies models were very useful for constructability and other purposes, the traditional 4D approach that combines 3D + time was not very useful when dealing with construction works that remained mainly ""hidden"" within the project 3D model. Applied to the case studies, the digital board shall provide different ways to display, communicate and understand information about resources, costs, dates and relationships coming from a traditional CPM network using 4D in a new 2D + time conceptualization.""

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Full text: content.pdf (470,415 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universitšt Dresden.


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