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Egbu C O, Botterill C

Information technologies for knowledge management: their usage and effectiveness

Abstract: Knowledge is increasingly being recognised as a vital organisational resource that provides competitive advantage. Managing knowledge assets can be a challenge, especially in the construction industry, where short-term working contracts and temporary coalitions of individuals can inhibit knowledge sharing. The role of information technology (IT) in knowledge management (KM), is an essential consideration for any company wishing to exploit emerging technologies to manage their knowledge assets. This paper presents research, which has been conducted to identify the technologies that are currently used to manage knowledge in the construction industry. The effectiveness of these technologies has also been explored, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of particular IT for KM. In addition, it attempts to highlight some of the challenges and complexities associated with managing knowledge in a project-based environment. A postal questionnaire was distributed among construction organisations in order to obtain generalisable data about the role of IT for KM, in the construction industry. This approach was supplemented by ethnographic interviews to reveal richer data about the nature of IT for KM, in five small, medium and large construction organisations. The research revealed that conventional technologies, such as the telephone, are used more frequently to manage knowledge, than more radical IT, such as Groupware or video-conferencing. In construction organisations, the potential benefits of IT for KM, are not fully exploited and many have expressed a need for greater implementation of IT, appropriated by sufficient training and education of staff

Keywords: Information Technology, Information Communication Technology, Knowledge Management

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/8 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Elgamal A, Zonta D, Fraser M

A pilot web-shared controlling and monitoring system for real-timeassessment of civil engineering structures

Abstract: A Webshaker pilot project is initiated to demonstrate the feasibility of live web-based monitoringand control of experimental setups. Such experimental setups are relevant to real-time safetyassessment of civil engineering structures. The developed framework allows for remote dynamictesting and monitoring of civil-infrastructure facilities. The Internet allows real-time worldwideaccess to the recorded response and associated live video/audio signals (Tele-presence). In thispaper, the employed technologies are described in detail, and the pilot project is presented(http://webshaker.ucsd.edu). Feasibility of this technology for both practical and researchapplications is discussed.

Keywords: monitoring, remote control, safety assessment, data acquisition, www, CGI,shaking-table, video streaming, dynamics.

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Full text: content.pdf (456,433 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Georgios Hadjidemetriou and Symeon E. Christodoulou

Pavement Anomalies Detection and Classification Using Entropic Texture Segmentation and Support Vector Machines

Abstract: Presented herein is a vision-based method for the detection of anomalies on roadway pavements, utilizing low-cost video acquisition and image processing of road surface frames collected by a smartphone (or camera) located on a vehicle moving in a real-life urban network, along with entropy-based texture segmentation filters, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. The proposed system, which has been developed in MATLAB, pre-processes video streams for the identification of video frames of changes in image-entropy values, isolates these frames and performs texture segmentation to identify pixel areas of significant changes in entropy values, and then classifies and quantifies these areas using SVMs. The developed SVM is trained and tested by feature vectors generated from the histogram and two texture descriptors of non-overlapped square blocks, which constitute images that includes ÔÔpatchÕÕ and ÔÔno-patchÕÕ areas. The outcome is composed of block-based and image-based classification, as well as measurement of the patch area.

Keywords: Pavement Condition Evaluation, Road Anomaly Detection, Vision-Based, Entropy, Texture Segmentation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0191

Full text: content.pdf (2,558,577 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Guss C

Virtual teams, project management processes and the construction industry

Abstract: Process is the "action of going through, a progressive forward movement from one point to another, with the goal of reaching an end point" 1. Project managers in the construction industry tend to regard process as the completion of separate technical tasks to reach an end. What project managers do not ask is, what happens in the process of communicating that contributes to a successful or poor project. The answer remains elusive because project managers expend energy finding better management tools and techniques, not communication processes to help expose and overcome limitations and inefficiencies of projects. Some tools provide a means to examine overall project success, but typically discrete time phases are examined in projects. Deming’s teachings are clear in that improvement in the quality of projects demand improvements in processes. One of the key process improvements that the construction industry needs to make is the area of communication to facilitate the transfer of knowledge between teams and projects. In the future, the industry will find it more difficult to rely on tacit knowledge (on the job know-how) of organizations or individuals in virtual environments.movement from one point to another, with the goal of reaching an end point” 1. Project managers in the construction industry tend to regard process as the completion of separate technical tasks to reach an end. What project managers do not ask is, what happens in the process of communicating that contributes to a successful or poor project. The answer remains elusive because project managers expend energy finding better management tools and techniques, not communication processes to help expose and overcome limitations and inefficiencies of projects. Some tools provide a means to examine overall project success, but typically discrete time phases are examined in projects. Deming’s teachings are clear in that improvement in the quality of projects demand improvements in processes. One of the key process improvements that the construction industry needs to make is the area of communication to facilitate the transfer of knowledge between teams and projects. In the future, the industry will find it more difficult to rely on tacit knowledge (on the job know-how) of organizations or individuals in virtual environments. Global trends to outsource work and downsize employee pools combined with the widespread availability of telecommunications devices continue to push organizations into considering ‘virtual employment’. Despite knowing that additional full-time employees often cause greater negative utility, the construction business continues to lag behind in use of communication technology and in the development of virtual teams. In the future, a shift to virtual teams will be a consequence of the need for high speed communication of new ideas among experts world-wide, for a competitive edge. Challenges are in using telecommunications tools to overcome geographic and psychological distance in managerial and technical communication. This paper discusses the future need for virtual teams in the construction industry. Some useful communication processes and technologies that facilitate a transition to virtual teams are introduced. These include: desktop videoconferencing, public video networks, Group Decision Support Systems, and the Internet. Advances in procurement capability is discussed to show impacts on the construction industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (60,477 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.033332) class.communication (0.027279) class.social (0.025990)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


H Alshanbari, R R A Issa

Use of Video Games to Enhance Construction Management Education

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Full text: content.pdf (34,997 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Helmicki A, Aktan A, Hunt V, Wilson A

Documentation and data archival of civil infrastructure research using multimedia cd-rom

Abstract: The University of Cincinnati Infrastructure Institute (UCll) currently operates a decommissioned steel stringer bridge testbed site which is serving as the test specimen for researching and demonstrating condition assessment and structural damage detection concepts and tools. The research is designed around the iterative application of various damage scenarios followed by structural identification in order to determine the viability and sensitivity of various experimental approaches (including instrumented monitoring and modal testing) for use in objective condition assessment. This project constitutes a first of its kind attempt at the study of these methods applied under realistic damage conditions to an actual full-scale operating structure. As a result, the experimental data and results acquired during this research are potentially of great value members of the academic, government, and induslrial communities. Correspondingly, one of the goals of this research is the dissemination of results through the use of a CD-ROM multimedia database incorporating infomation in audio, video, photogrammetric, diagrammaticKADD, text, graphical, and raw numeric data formats. The goal of this effort is to effectively communicate to users all information about the project necessary to be able to make use of the experimental data and results obtained in an intelligent and informed manner. This paper describes various design and development issues connected with this database development effort.

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Full text: content.pdf ( bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Ito Y,Soulier C,Pencreach Y,Hafferty B,Hafferty P

The application of cloud computing in transport planning using interactive 3D VR simulation technology

Abstract: The design and planning of urban and transport infrastructure has undergone a tremendous transformation over the past few years. Not only has the available software technology changed considerably, so have the requirements and demands of the various stakeholders. As the democratic process becomes even more open, coupled with the advent of 24/7 information and news, so the demands of the general public to have a greater say in the actions that have a direct effect on their lives have increased. Local and National Government planning professionals are under increasing pressure to not only justify what they plan to do in words and pictures, but also to show the proposed new developments in a medium that is far more easily understandable to the ordinary ‘man in the street’. In the recent past the only way to do this was by calling ‘town hall meetings’ and displaying large photographs, video clips or solid models. This paper describes a new and novel way to improve consensus building for contentious new infrastructure projects, by using Interactive 3D Visual Simulation computer models, delivered to the target stakeholder community via the Cloud.

Keywords: 3D,Visualization,VR,Cloud Computing,Urban Planning,3D City Modeling

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Full text: content.pdf (689,297 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Kahkonen, Kalle; Hyvakka, Jouko; Porkka, Janne; Siltanen, Sanni and Woodward, Charles

Integrating Building Product Models with Live Video Stream

Abstract: Various Building Information Models (BIMs) are increasingly used for data sharing and communication purposes in real estate and construction sector. This change can be seen as part of more general development where the main target is wide integration infrastructure to handle user interaction, business process, applications and data. Besides of new achievements in BIM technologies the described general development is enabled in an interesting manner by the overall technological integration that is bringing together traditional IT, telecommunication, Internet, TV and radio technologies and entertainment business. The resultant solutions have already changed clearly our working environment, its processes and business, and, more even radical changes are likely to appear. This paper shall present a research project addressing combination of building product models with live video stream applications. The research project named '4D Live' explores hardware, middleware and software platforms for the named purpose whilst the main target is to study emerging new sector specific business processes and changes arising from these solutions. 4D Live project is producing several demonstrative solutions where building models are combined with live video stream from one or several digital video cameras: i) Live internet based 4D, ii) Augmented reality web camera, and iii) Multi-Camera studio for BIM-Human interaction.

Keywords: BIM, building product models, augmented reality, visualizations

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Full text: content.pdf (2,686,783 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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Kiroff L, Ostrowski P

It and E-architecture – a technological breakthrough, a techno knowledge race or a new paradigm in business?

Abstract: The impact of Information Technology on the growth of the knowledge society is profound. In an era when human intellectual creativity is highly valued, IT is a powerful tool enabling the analysis and development of ideas and concepts. Regarding IT as a means to automate business tasks aiming at some labour savings would be an extremely simplistic approach to a more complex concept. Designing systems that augment user capabilities, encourage further exploration and foster creativity will enable users to do what they have not been able to do before. Business environments where collaborative work relationships flourish become highly successful in the intensely competitive global marketplace. The synergy between IT and teams working together to accomplish mutual goals becomes the key to organisational performance. The AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry in particular is undergoing dramatic changes due to the pervasive use of networked computers and multimedia equipment. The advent of the first PCs in the architectural profession in the early 1980s gradually started adding a new element of complexity to the architect’s job. The essence of the architectural work is the teamwork environment and IT is able to facilitate the design process and make project collaborations effective. Our research focuses on IT and its impact on architectural team environments. Recent emerging trends that will be analysed include architecture firms’ collaborations on national and international projects (firms experts in particular building types associate with local or regional firms called “architect of record” commissioned for the contract documentation and the contract administration stages of the project). The Royal Sun Alliance Building, Metropolis Apartments, Botany Downs Shopping Centre, DFS Galleria (all in Auckland) are some NZ examples of international collaborations with the design coming from the USA and Australia and Auckland firms commissioned as “architect of record”. Such trends necessitate the use of new technologies like advanced digital communications and hence the unprecedented boom of project extranets, or project WEB sites, and the emergence of the WEB-based architecture. Highly sophisticated architectural environments are built around Intranets, Extranets, the Internet and Video Conferencing systems. This enables the integration of architectural design, business management and team collaborations through computer technology. As a consequence, traditional roles and responsibilities in an office environment will change dramatically with fewer lower level routine tasks being available. Continually updating skills through on-going education becomes a lifetime commitment for the highly qualified industry professionals and for the company as a whole. A large number of computer software applications become indispensable for the highly efficient everyday functioning of an office. Some of the most significant buildings of the 1990s like F. Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain and S. Calatrava’s Extension for the Milwaukees’s Art Museum, Wisconsin, USA couldn’t have been made without CAD. Another interesting trend is the use of IT to define a building through its entire life cycle in a more comprehensive way. This covers not only the traditional design and construction phases of a project but also automated facilities management and even the building’s eventual demolition. Our research methodology encompasses an array of primary and secondary sources of information – literature review, international case studies and projects both pre and post IT revolution, interviews with experienced industry professionals, hands-on experience demonstrating WEB based concepts in practice and individual professional expertise. Research Outcomes and Conclusions: · Although technology has given us numerous new tools to be more productive and innovative creatively, the amount of quality architecture being designed may not necessarily increase. · It is academia that drives innovative uses of technology not industry. Academia has more time and resources to experiment and is not at the mercy of the vendors’ vision or how technology can or should be used. · Computing is in a never-ending flux. This change, for better or worse dynamically drives the way we do business. The entire industry must seek out these changes, create them, challenge them, foster, adopt or discard them to suit. · As object oriented CAD becomes more pervasive, more value will be added to the construction documentation. This value-add needs to be recognised and exploited. · As technology pervades, the design process, regardless, remains relatively the same. · Hierarchical business models and decision-making processes are no longer the norm. This fosters an atmosphere of collaboration and employee empowerment. · Talent is talent. Technology is no substitute for it.

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Full text: content.pdf (170,944 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.044696) class.collaboration (0.038235) class.environment (0.034749)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Klinc Robert

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING TOOL FOR EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

Abstract: Today, we live in the world where the information and communication technologies are developing faster than ever before. We receive information and learn from a variety of sources. However, such learning is rarely related to the official programmes of higher education. Lecturers must compete with, for example, Discovery channel, games and/or other audio/video/internet media. That is why many students today have great expectations which even the well prepared and quality books cannot satisfy. Besides, it is difficult to attract their attention when the lessons are not dynamic and the lectured subject is not illustrated as it could be, considering all the technologies available. This paper describes a possible approach for teaching the basics of earthquake engineering through the use of animations (simulations) and active participation of the students. It could be a great addition to classical teaching methods in civil and earthquake engineering. Besides, the idea and the development of the prototype of the learning tool are described. That type of media gives the lecturer the opportunity to animate students, to give them the possibility to dig deeper into the discussed subject, and to learn through experimenting (‘playing’) with carefully prepared examples.

Keywords: computer based learning

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Full text: content.pdf (407,710 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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