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Kosovac B, Froese T, Vanier D J

Integrating heterogeneous data representations in model-based AEC/FM systems

Abstract: "The paper addresses an information management issue in integrated product/process-model based AEC/FM systems. It introduces an approach to the management of heterogeneous representations of project information. The focus is on graphical representations of a building model used as a tool for accessing data from an already populated model in traditionally non-CAD-based applications. The proposed approach is based on the concept of controlled vocabularies -- thesauri. In this context, a thesaurus is used to control not only terminology but all different representations of entities comprising a building or project model. Examples of different representations include: graphical representations at varying level of abstraction, diverse graphic formats (vector, pixel, VR, video etc), graphics-text-audio as both alternative and complementary modes, visualised non-natively-graphic information etc. The approach is illustrated by a simple application, the first in a series of interrelated projects comprising an intended research. The application uses XML and an existing pilot thesaurus in the low-slope roofing domain for retrieving textual and graphical information from complex documents, sets of documents, and the Internet. The application should represent a proof of the concept to be elaborated in the future work and used for efficient and economical management of information in construction planning and facilities management applications within integrated model-based systems."

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Full text: content.pdf (644,613 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.053481) class.represent (0.031923) class.economic (0.018899)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Liang Y L, Amette L S, Simon S K

Multimedia project control and documentation system

Abstract: Construction experience and knowledge are omnipresent yet difficult to capture at the project site. Many problems and innovative solutions can not be effectively documented because ofthe lack of proper tools to collect and organize the as-built iformation. In claims or disputes, mmy issues involving site conditions cannot be thoroughly analyzed because ofthe lack of information. This as-built information may exist in diverse formats such as text (reports, daily logs), sound (meeting recordings, discussions), and video (site walk through, inspection records). Using multimedia technology, these diverse formats of as-built information can be integrated with project scheduling and control systems to provide an environment not only to control and document project information but also to elicit and study construction experience and knowledge. Such information could also be very valuable for facility operator/maintainers in the later stage of the facility life cycle. This paper presents the design and the operatian of a multimedia project control and documentation system (M73LTROL) under development at the University of Illinois and Construction Engineering and Research Laboratory (CERL). This system allows the users to document and retrieve the as-built project information in the form of text, sound, image and video associated with construction activities. The current version of MULTROL is developed for the FC platform and runs under 'Microsoft WindowsTM operating environment. This system uses graphical user-interface for all operations, creating a user- friendly environment far construction personnel. The retrieval of the as-built information is further assisted by user definable queries to support different needs of construction management.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,897,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.041560) class.retrieve (0.016578) class.environment (0.015832)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Newton S,Lowe R,Kember R,Wang R,Davey S

The Situation Engine: a hyper-immersive platform for construction workplace simulation and learning

Abstract: The prospect of being able to place an individual within an entirely interactive, simulated environment has long been held, but only recently is it being realized. Flight simulators were the first to provide a hyper-immersive experience using a combination of very detailed and accurate models of aircraft systems, high-resolution visualization and motion platforms. More recently, advanced video game technologies have been coupled with augmented reality systems and sophisticated tracking technologies to provide hyper-immersive experiences of battlefield conditions, crime scenes, operating theatres, industrial processes, etc. A key problem for developers of any hyper-immersive environment is the significant overhead costs of modeling, programming, display technologies and motion simulation. The Situation Engine is an application platform that provides for specific and managed building and construction experience to be made available using low-cost, advanced digital technologies. The same engine can drive a multitude of learning situations. Multiple users collectively occupy the same simulated workplace but experience that situation individually by individual movement through the space. Head tracking, gesture recognition, voice communication, 3D head-mounted displays, location-based sound and embedded learning resources have all been incorporated into the Situation Engine at minimal cost. The total enabling technology cost per participant is currently around $600 Australian. This paper will focus on the hyper-immersive nature of the Situation Engine. In particular, the distinction between immersion (as a quantitative measure of sensory fidelity) and presence (as a qualitative perception of ‘being there’) will be articulated and clarified. The paper also highlights one of the various ways in which hyper-immersion is manifested in the Situation Engine: gestural control. Gestural control has been implemented using a Microsoft Kinect™ and proprietary gesture detection algorithms to monitor a range of gestures in parallel, including gestures that are context dependent.

Keywords: Simulation,Hyper-Immersion,Cost,Situation Engine,Gestural Control

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Full text: content.pdf (820,250 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Omar H-S,Jahnkassim P-S,Mahmud M

Pilot tests of augmented realities in science displays and design presentations

Abstract: Augmented Reality (AR) enriches the education environment by adding spatially aligned virtual objects (3D models, 2D textures, textual annotations, etc.) by means of special display technologies .This research was a pilot test within a longer research project aimed at investigating and evaluating the relevance of realism elements in 3d AR education technologies in science centers and design presentations. The main advantages of using virtual objects are that they can be animated, they are interactive and can respond to the user’s actions and are not constrained by the costs and practical or physical limitations of real objects. These factors make AR a powerful educational tool. In this research, AR Planets and AR Dinosaur in National Science Center Malaysia were developed as a testbed. A pilot study - to gauge the public reaction to the technology - was developed involving the augmenting of earth globe and a dinosaur. Researchers found out that both adult and children reactions were enthusiastic, changing a dry subject such as science to an exciting activity. A survey was undertaken to gauge the reactions and significance to aspects of realism in AR. User studies were done using field studies to study the effectiveness of realism in AR application in real scenarios. The participants were asked to evaluate two different approaches of application to experience the Augmented 3d science content with heavy realism content and less realism content. After a couple of minutes exploring the content with recorded video, they filled in the questionnaire which assessed their experience towards the application. The importance to the realism elements recorded with the feedback and attitude by the users such as their satisfaction and feel real to the AR content and the feeling of connection to the content elements .The evaluation found out that 98% of the participants believe the AR content with heavy realism elements is superior to compare with AR content with less realism elements in science center. This research will give a better guidance to education centers on user expectations and responses towards such an application including the importance and significance on using realism in Augmented Reality application.

Keywords: Augmented reality,education,science,design,presentation,science center,planet,dinosaur

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Full text: content.pdf (1,035,231 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Pakanen J E, Möttönen V J, Hyytinen M J, Ruonansuu H A, Törmäkangas K K

A Web-Based Information System For Diagnosing, Servicing And Operating Heating Systems

Abstract: Diagnosing a heating system may turn out to be necessary even for an ordinary customer, like a residential building owner or a facility manager. The need is usually triggered by a technical problem in the system. The customer wants to know how to solve or handle the problem. This paper presents a Web-based information system, called WebDia, which is designed to assist customers with such heating problems. WebDia is a prototype system, constructed for district heating substations and oil heating systems. WebDia incorporates a Web server integrated with a back-end database, accessible from a browser of a PC, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) or a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) mobile phone. The general idea behind the development is that the server computer shares its resources and knowledge with the user. Besides fault diagnosis, instructions for servicing and operating the heating system are also essential topics. The information content is gathered from various publications, material provided by manufacturers and interviews with experts. A great deal of the professional information also comes from the fourteen co-operating companies assisting in the system development. WebDia is a collection of dynamic HyperText Markup Language (HTML) pages, but it also includes pictures, photographs, video and audio recordings, and animations. Most of the pages are created using server-side scripting based on Active Server Pages (ASP) technology, but Java applets are also used. Building a system like WebDia turns out to be a tedious process, which requires knowledge and expertise from several disciplines in addition to modern Web authoring and multimedia tools.

Keywords: Web engineering, multimedia, database systems, WAP, PDA, diagnostic methods, heatin

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2001/4 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2001 (browse)
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Pakanen J, Möttönen V, Hyytinen M

WebDia - a WWW-based tool for diagnosing, servicing and operating heatingsystems

Abstract: WebDia is a service manual, a help desk and a diagnostic tool on the Web. Technically, it consists of aWeb server and a PC or hand-held computer with an Internet connection, or a WAP mobile phone. Theidea is that the server computer shares its resources and knowledge with the user. Diagnostic decisionssuggested by the server are based on observations made by the user. WebDia is designed for ordinarycustomers, residential building owners, technical house managers and servicemen. The prototype system isconstructed for district heating substations and oil heating systems. Besides diagnosis, instructions forservicing and operating the plant are other essential topics. The Web-based user interface is flexible. Thepresented information is not only hypertext, but also pictures, photographs, video recordings, andanimations. So, the resulted information is comprehensive and easy to understand even for unskilledpersons.

Keywords: diagnostic methods, Web-based tools, help desk, user interface, district heating sub stations, oilheating systems, WAP, hand-held computers

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Full text: content.pdf (302,652 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Popova M, Johansson P, Lindgren H

An integrated platform for case-based design

Abstract: This paper investigates methods for information management through the rational application of IT within design. Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process since previous experiences help in understanding and solving new problems. Therefore, we intent to integrate the platforms of case-based reasoning (CBR) and information structures into an information management system for case-based design (CBD). In order to be of practical use, a CBD-system ought to handle all kinds of information created and used during the design process. Although the significance of standard product models is largely recognized today, heterogeneous weakly structured information e.g. construction briefs, calculation documents, 2D-drawings, and raw data: images, audio and video data, is still necessary in a CBD-system. We combine existing techniques (CAD-tools, word processors, WWW, etc.) and standards (IFC, XML, etc.) into a prototype of a tool for supporting the activities of architects and structural engineers. Structured information is represented by IFC; XML manages weakly structured information, while WWW deals with raw data. In this way, the heterogeneous information used in design can be managed and reused and CBD-systems can become a natural and valuable tool for designers.

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Full text: content.pdf (813,740 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.090244) class.represent (0.085789) class.software-software (0.021536)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Rashidi A,Brilakis I,Vela P

Built infrastructure point cloud data cleaning: an overview of gap filling algorithms

Abstract: Video captured from infrastructure scenes can be used to generate point cloud data (PCD) as a potential solution for acquiring spatial information of built infrastructure - however, video based PCD is incomplete and includes gaps, outliers and poor/non-reconstructed areas. This phenomenon has a negative impact on both visualization and measurement practices and is mainly caused by a number of reasons including insufficient coverage of all views while videotaping the scene, lack of sufficient features on uniform surfaces and possible errors in calibration, matching and optimization algorithms. To tackle this issue, researchers suggested various post processing algorithms for reconstructing missing surfaces and filling gaps/holes. This paper provides an overview on these algorithms summarize their properties in terms of efficiency, ability to work in complex geometry settings and running time. As the comparison study, three most common hole filling algorithms: MSL, GG and RFR were implemented and tested on a number of real built infrastructure scenes as the case studies. Number of generated 3D points for filling the gaps, proper distribution of points on covered surfaces and running time are three major comparison metrics has been taken into account. Results indicate that in general PML outperforms other algorithms on both flat and curved surfaces.

Keywords: Built infrastructure,triangulation,gap,Point Cloud Data,surface reconstruction

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Full text: content.pdf (1,158,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Ricardo Eiris Pereira, Hashem Izadi Moud and Masoud Gheisari

Using 360-Degree Interactive Panoramas to Develop Virtual Representation of Construction Sites

Abstract: 360-degree panoramic virtual reality is a ubiquitous technique for visualizing complex construction environments that can be augmented with different layers of information. Unlike the common virtual environments that provide unrealistic computer-generated simulation of the environment, panoramic virtual reality is able to create highly realistic and detailed representations of the real environment while giving users a sense of immersion. In this study, interactive panoramas are made of a series of panoramic videos and photos, which are captured from a construction site. Various types of time/location-specific information (e.g., audio, video, virtual 2D, or 3D models) can be augmented in such panoramic virtual environments to create a natural interactive experience. Users will be able to navigate through the panoramic virtual environment of a complex construction project while interacting with augmented information to learn more about the construction project and job site. In this research a 360-degree panoramic virtual reality environment of a construction job site is created. This paper describes the development of interactive panoramic scenes using panoramic photos and videos. The procedure of creating the panoramic experience, the process of augmenting the captured panoramas with different layers of information and an integrated pilot study are described in details.

Keywords: 360-Degree Panorama, Interactive Panoramic Scenes, Virtual Reality, Immersive Virtual Experience, Construction Site Visit

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0122

Full text: content.pdf (4,756,371 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Santos, Pedro; GierlingerThomas; Stork Andre; and McIntyre, Don

Display and Rendering Technologies for Virtual and Mixed Reality Design Review.

Abstract: In this paper we introduce an innovative application designed to make collaborative design review in the architectural and automotive domain more effective. For this purpose we present a system architecture which combines a variety of visualization technologies such as high resolution multi-tile displays, TabletPCs and headmounted displays with innovative 2D and 3D Interaction Paradigms to better support collaborative mobile mixed reality design reviews. Our research and development is motivated by two user scenarios: architectural and automotive design review involving real users from Page\Park architects and FIAT Elasis. Our activities are supported by the EU IST project IMPROVE aimed at developing advanced display techniques, fostering activities in the areas of: optical see-through HMD development using unique OLED technology, marker-less optical tracking, mixed reality rendering, image calibration for large tiled displays, collaborative tablet-based and projection wall oriented interaction and stereoscopic video streaming for mobile users. The paper gives an overview of the targeted scenarios and focuses in particular on the rendering aspects of the project.

Keywords: virtual reality; design review; rendering

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Full text: content.pdf (403,777 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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