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Message development in the building process

Abstract: New communication media offer new opportunities to exchange information between participants in a building project. A case study was done of a specific building project from the viewpoint of a company that produces concrete floors. An executable simulation model was used to create a formal description of the information exchange process. The output of the simulation is an activity schema, a message exchange diagram and a list of messages. The schemata give insight about the information flow and are a resource for developing a strategy for the introduction of electronic communication. The messages serve as a starting point for selecting a standardized electronic message or developing a special one.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,214,000 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.022605) class.synthesis (0.022488) class.collaboration (0.015924)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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C Lima

Interoperability among Semantic Resources in Construction: Is it Feasible?

Abstract: This paper discusses the semantic interoperability in the Construction sector, from the viewpoint of the FUNSIEC project. Shortly, FUNSIEC project aimed to answer the following question: is it feasible to establish semantic mappings amongst Semantic Resources (SRs) specifically created for the Construction sector? This quest has been answered positively through the development of the Open Semantic Infrastructure for the European Construction Sector (OSIECS). FUNSIEC work relied in a methodology that supported the development of the OSIECS triad, which is formed by the OSIECS Kernel, the OSIECS meta-model, and the OSIECS model. This paper presents the OSIECS triad, discussing the approach adopted, the challenges faced, the problems overcome, and the results achieved. The work to be done to continue this work is also discussed.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Ciftcioglu O, Durmisevic S, Sariyildiz S

Soft computing in construction information technology

Abstract: Purpose: With this paper a data driven model of knowledge representation for use in construction information technology (CIT) is introduced as a novel implementation and it is effectively implemented by artificial intelligence methods. Although for CIT knowledge base systems as a general framework is available where the user can place the information. Such systems are eventually mere data warehouses or in a more sophisticated form they are decision support systems in the form of rule based expert systems. However, in the case of a framework structure to organise the knowledge base is difficult and cumbersome task to establish an effective product. In the case expert systems, the inference is deductive and therefore the effectiveness of the system is limited to the prescribed rules. Therefore in place of high level data base management software like Prolog ©, the integration of new computational information processing methods and technologies into CIT would be much informative and therefore they are much effective and finally desirable. From the viewpoint of computation, CIT the data are rather soft requiring special methods and techniques to deal with. In this respect, computational intelligence is one of the emerging technologies, which provides CIT with ample possibilities and techniques for the enhancement of CIT products. Computational intelligence is a part of artificial intelligence (AI) and can be defined as a branch of soft computing methodologies including Expert Systems, Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computation. Methodology: For the CIT data soft computing methods are invoked. Soft Computing is an emerging approach to computing which parallels the remarkable ability of the human mind to reason and learn in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In plain terms, it is the processing of uncertain information with the methods, methodologies, and paradigms of artificial NN, fuzzy logic and evolutionary algorithms. The equivalence of neural networks and fuzzy logic applications is well established. However, the effectiveness of either method is still dependent on the application itself. Each method has its strong merits. However, in general, best performance is obtained when both methods are used in hybrid form. Especially neural system can cope with complex systems while it is relatively difficult for fuzzy systems. On the contrary, it is easier to deal with linguistic variables by fuzzy systems. Such a hybrid model is implemented in the knowledge model accomplished. Results: A novel concept of soft computing in CIT is introduced using actual building design data for design evaluation. The knowledge base contains all the local and global information and their inherent relationships among themselves. The knowledge representation is performed by means of a series of fuzzy systems having their both fuzzy input space and output space. The associations between the spaces are established by learning techniques of AI using the data at hand. Such an 'intelligent' knowledge base can make inference resulting in 'intelligent' due outcomes, which are not explicitly coded, in advance. In other words this is an inductive and computational inference for decision-making compared to conventional knowledge base systems where inference is deductive prescribed by rules. Conclusions: The soft computing in CIT is an important step for processing the relevant effectively and efficiently. In this respect, the paper describes ongoing advanced research and its verifications by actual data at hand.

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Full text: content.pdf (204,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.064489) class.synthesis (0.025964) class.deployment (0.019220)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Hannus M

Information model for performance driven computer integrated construction

Abstract: A generic information model for computer integrated constructionis presented. The viewpoint is performance driven design and construction, quality management and computerised information management over the life cycle of a building. The building information management process is divided into subprocesses by means of hierarchical activity models. Accordingly, conceptual data models controlling each subprocess are presented. For instance, the design process is controlled by a design data model. The data models also illustrate integration of traditional classification approach into product models.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,249,428 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.030805) class.processing (0.017651) class.retrieve (0.011166)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Janne Porkka, Kalle Kähkönen

Software development approaches and challenges of 4D product models

Abstract: Experiences from projects utilizing 4D have been promising. Several companies together with researchers have seen 4D applications as potential products for lucrative business. The promising business prospects have resulted in numerous more and less intuitive attempts to develop such products. This paper draws commonalities from various approaches and reviews 4D applications from the viewpoint of product models. It is considered that now it is an appro-priate time to look at the development strategies and achievements so far, and, based on lessons learned show the way forward. First the principles for reaching 4D product models are covered. Various approaches in current commercial 4D appli-cations are considered. One of the solutions used as ground information is Visual Product Chronology (VPC), devel-oped by VTT. Second the paper addresses the obvious challenges of 4D product models. There are obstacles waiting to be resolved before 4D is comprehensively harnessed for project management purposes. One of these obstacles is standardization, or more specifically the lack of it. One of the most potential formats for open BIM standard is Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs). The use of IFCs for scheduling and 4D purposes is discussed. Finally new approaches from on-going research project 4DLive are addressed; preliminary results recognized are 1) open communication protocol for application integration, and 2) building site scenery linkage to product modelling. Possibilities and benefits exist on advanced designing and marketing solutions.

Keywords: BIM, 4D, scheduling, data exchange

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Jukka Rönkkö, Jussi Markkanen

Lightweight 3D IFC visualization client

Abstract: We describe a construction product model 3D visualization client software concept that can be used in advanced meeting room, virtual reality and construction site augmented reality applications. Its main target is to im-prove construction project communication and understanding through visualization. It provides Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) geometry visualization capabilities to existing applications that can incorporate a Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) module to communicate with the visualization client at runtime. To accomplish this we present a software architecture based on UPnP networking standard that allows the visualization client to engage in two way runtime data exchange with existing construction project applications such as project management, cost estimation and quantity cal-culation applications. The client runs on laptop, desktop and portable tablet PCs. It offers stereoscopic viewing and spacemouse navigation for immersive virtual reality applications and live camera source background as well as exter-nal viewpoint control for augmented reality applications. We describe some usage scenarios of this concept, compare it to others and present early results as this work is part of an ongoing effort in Virtual Building Environments project.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, advanced meeting rooms, ubiquitous computing, IFC visualization

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Kumaraswamy M M K, Palaneeswaran E, Ng S T

Towards ICT-enhanced management support systems for optimizing infrastructure procurement

Abstract: Infrastructure procurement programmes of many public clients and large private developers, increasingly involve complex networks of stakeholders. Well balanced and 'fully informed? decisions are critical in optimizing resources to achieve agreed objectives. A research project in Hong Kong is aimed at developing an ICT (Information and Communications Technology) - enhanced MSS (Management Support System). This will empower the formulation of more effective and efficient construction project procurement and delivery/ operational systems - for innovative and improved 'total? management of construction projects - from a large client's viewpoint. Web-based Decision Support Systems (wDSSs) are being developed to help achieve such objectives, by capturing, codifying and mobilising both expert and experiential construction industry knowledge. Furthermore, web interfaces are being designed to mobilise the collective expertise of the entire project supply chain in real-time collaborative formats. These decision aids will enable the often fragmented multi-disciplinary project teams to build on 'state of the science? knowledge, past 'lessons learnt? and present best practices, in making more informed managerial decisions that will help to optimise inputs and reduce wasted resources. Potential benefits of wDSSs are demonstrated in this paper, through examples from the integrated framework and prototype modules/ models that are under development and 'construction' in Hong Kong. These cover a crosssection of infrastructure programme management decision scenarios, i.e. in: (1) multi-purpose contractor registration-prequalification, (2) dynamic performance appraisal of contractors and (3) evaluating 'extension of time? entitlements. Interim outcomes included herein are the basic MSS framework, pilot models of items (1) and (2) above and prototype modules of item (3) above.

Keywords: construction, decisions, infrastructure, Management Support System, procurement

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Myllymäki R

Demands made on the it organisation by businessprocess re-engineering

Abstract: Collaboration between information technology (IT) staff and construction managers is a basiccondition for a successful business process re-engineering project. Since such collaboration is notalways free from problems, this paper focus on preparations that will assist the IT organisation tomeet the challenges of a business process re-engineering project. The viewpoint taken is that of theIT manager.The material in this paper is based on experience gained in YIT Corporation in the period 1989-1997. During these years the writer participated in several information system development projectsas project secretary or project manager, and has been responsible for IT matters in YIT Corporationsince 1995. YIT Corporation is a company which has a variety of interests and it is the largestconstruction company in Finland.

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Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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R Sebastian

BIM in Different Methods of Project Delivery

Abstract: This paper particularly addresses the topics of “legal and regulatory aspects of Building Information Modelling (BIM)” by reporting actual discussions in The Netherlands on the appropriateness of four project delivery methods to be applied for BIM based projects, i.e. traditional Design-Bid-Build, Dutch Building Team, Design-and-Build, and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). BIM has become very important in a complex project that requires multidisciplinary collaboration. However, in many projects, BIM is still viewed as an ICT tool only, and hitherto BIM is to be decided when the project reaches an operational level. Such a viewpoint can undermine the effectiveness of BIM to support an effective collaboration. Therefore, considering the most appropriate project delivery method to assure an open and integrated collaboration is crucial since the project initiation stage.The main part of this paper covers a desk research to review several project delivery methods. The analysis focuses on how the use of BIM in a project affects the division of tasks and the formal agreements on the roles and working processes between the parties involved. Following the theoretical analysis, this paper makes a reflection on the recent BIM based projects in The Netherlands refer to the best practices presented during the national BIM competition in 2010. Recommendations are then given to improve the existing practice, among which the standardisation of general contract conditions for a BIM based project is strongly advised to avoid ‘reinventing the wheel’ in each new project.

Keywords: BIM, project delivery method, collaboration, best practice, The Netherlands.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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