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A. Dikbas, P. Ercoskun & K. Ercoskun

Enabling Sustainability through SOA within the AEC/FM Domain

Abstract: Sustainability is one of the most important research topics for the Architecture/Engineering/Construction & Facility Management (AEC/FM) domain. Two basic factors which enable sustainability are the technology background and the acquisition capability of this technology to the end users – society. Sustainability requires state of the art technologies which reduce the negative impact of population and affiliation. Key aspects of such technology are; it should depend on renewable resources, without waste, cyclical, based on resource productivity rather than labor productivity, and should even be restorative in its effects on the biosphere. Theproblem is, today establishing such technology is not affordable for the average end user. Development, implication, and acquisition of such technologies takes reasonable time though signs from our earth warns usthat we have no more time. The problem itself contains a lot of interoperability challenges in Information Technology (IT), Process and Organizational levels. Although many governments deploy incentives to promote investments on sustainable technologies, money is not the only measure for the market penetration of a technology. A user oriented approach is developed and a proposal is made to elaborate on the problem as a whole within a reference process model. The model determines the key functions, mechanisms and controls, to enable the design and development of sustainable technologies and facilitate the acquisition of those technologies to the society. The process model basically focuses on the Facility Management processes and addresses many aspects of the problem including financial, legal, and ethical issues. The model benefits from Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions for construction sector from a previous research and promotes a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for tracking the lifetime of sustainable technologies. The model includes decision support functions for the design phase, marketing and competency functions for the implication and acquisition phase, and measurement and evaluation functions for the use phase. The preliminary solution includes business processes rather then IT solutions but interoperability solutions on the IT layer also have been discussed for sustainable development. The model is under development within the joint efforts of a EU funded FP6 project I3CON (Industrialised, Integrated, Intelligent Construction) and a PhD research. It is believed that the model would facilitate the widespread recognition of the requirement of a radical switch to the sustainable technologies.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Anders Vennstrom, Thomas Olofsson, William Fawcett, Attila Dikbas, Esin Ergen

Determination and Costing of Sutainiable Construction Projects: Option Based Decision Support

Abstract: The building stock in Europe accounts for over 40% of the final energy consumption in the European Union. Moreover, the construction sector is one of the largest producers of industrial waste contributing 40-50% of landfill in some EU countries. A common way of creating a forward planning for optimal resource efficiency in construction project is to apply Life cycle cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the decision process. There are, however, difficulties in assessment of the impact of the whole project on the environment and estimating its sustainability. The EU funded 7th framework project CILECCTA sets out to develop a LCCA (Life Cycle Cost and Analysis) tool supporting the determination and costing of sustainable project strategies.Current LCC software can assist the decision making process in simulating different alternatives for the design, build, maintenance and demolition of assets – allowing both client and builder to determine the favoured alternative for them. Through linking LCC and LCA methodologies, the CILECCTA project will go one stage further by enabling an assessment of the impact of the whole project on the environment and estimating its sustainability. It will also include the recently developed new generation of Whole Life Costing (WLC) methodology including a probabilistic approach to the development of sustainable WLC strategies, using a real options approach. This paper sets out the framework of current LCCA tools and the challenges in developing a modular LCCA engine integrating asset-related data in price banks and life cycle inventories across Europe. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Program FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no 229061.

Keywords: Decision support, Life Cycle Cost, Life Cycle Assessment, real option analysis

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Bloomfield D, Amor R

I-SEEC: an internet gateway to european construction resources

Abstract: For the construction industries to move into the knowledge society and knowledge economy they need to be able to build upon their existing information base. This information base is unique within individual countries (though often with significant overlap between countries, for example, with Eurocodes utilised across Europe) and usually widely dispersed. Drawing together the information resources within nations, and then connecting them with each other to form trans-national resources enables a more effective, informed and intelligent industry. I-SEEC is a collaborative project funded by the European Union with the overall goal of creating an infrastructure to enable and link high quality commercial electronic information services throughout its member countries. This project started in March 2000 and finishes in April 2001. It builds upon a previous EU project - CONNET (CONstruction information service NETwork). This paper provides a description of the final state of the infrastructure, services and business models available through I-SEEC. The countries participating in I-SEEC are Finland, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. CONNET provides access to a range of high quality Internet-based services for the construction industry in Europe. It provides both a European entry point to identify resources and national entry points for localised service delivery. The European CONNET entry point provides a range of technology park services as well as industry-specific services. These services include: · Management of security services, including installation and monitoring of security systems · Help desk, providing a point of contact for potential service providers and for problem resolution · Information broker role, enabling transparent access to information in the CONNET services · Technology observatory service, including leading edge, current and best-practice technologies · Provision of user profiles, allowing personalised delivery of updates in areas of interest · Multi-classification support, permitting handling of national systems used across the EC. · Inter-service communication services, allowing all comparable services to be identified and a query to be passed from one service to another service to answer. · Multi-language support, enabling EC languages to be handled correctly and to provide basic translations between them. The services offered by I-SEEC include a Technical Information Centre, Waste Exchange Centre, Electronic News Service, Calculation and Software Centre, Who's Who in Construction, Specialist Equipment Directory and a Best Practice Information service. The CONNET infrastructure and the I-SEEC information services provide the means to promote effective use of information by construction industry professionals in an efficient and cost-effective way. The ability to pass queries from one high quality service to another in a different country is a substantial contribution to the CIB goal of providing information to achieve performance. This paper draws out lessons learned - both technological and practical - in the course of this multi-country initiative to develop a portal for the construction industry. It also invites participation in this open initiative and describes how existing and developing services across the world can be made interoperable within a CONNET (and any Internet portal) environment.

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Full text: content.pdf (416,345 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.056731) class.deployment (0.046867) class.collaboration (0.041581)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Craig R. Dubler, John I. Messner

Evaluating the Value of Early Planning for Building Information Modeling using Lean Theory

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) provides a means for owners, designers, contractors, and operators to generate, organize and use detailed information throughout a project lifecycle. An important aspect to the success of BIM is the process in which information is exchanged between team members. In a theory, information should be both accessible and usable, when required. Because the AEC industry is project centered, and several companies work collaboratively towards the design and construction of a facility, the availability and accuracy of information can become constrained. BIM has the potential to improve the effectiveness of building design and construction; however, if the information exchange process is not planned early in the project, the benefits of using the authored data may be mitigated by process waste. This paper serves to evaluate the value associated with early team planning for BIM on two projects being constructed on the Penn State University campus; one which implemented a BIM planning procedure in the design phase. The rationale behind lean theory is to increase efficiency by eliminating waste, consequently increasing value. Therefore, lean principles were modified to establish categories of building information exchange waste. During the case study process actual information exchanges were captured using a process mapping technique. Once the information exchange process was documented, the data was analyzed using the seven types of waste: overproduction, inventory, extra processing, motivation, defects, waiting, and transportation. When applied to information management, these concepts provide a broad framework for an effective process for standardization. Future work includes analyzing the project and team traits for relationships with the information exchange waste. This information will provide additional insight to the value of early planning for Building Information Modeling by documenting the economic benefits that may be achieved by the industry if the information exchange process is developed early in design.

Keywords: BIM, Lean Thinking, Information Exchange, Knowledge Management

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Georgios Gourlis, Peter Smolek, Bernhard Heinzl, Ines Leobner and Iva Kovacic

From BIM Models to Integrated Energy Efficiency Applications for Industrial Facilities

Abstract: Raised interest in efficient use of available resources in industrial facilities prompts for software-tools to predict and manage energy demand of the whole system. An integrated approach considering all energy consumption contributors, classified into building, energy system, production and logistics, is developed within the research project Balanced Manufacturing (BaMa). Thereby BIM models of industrial spaces containing valuable information are used for creating a comprehensive representation of building-related aspects in a hybrid simulation environment, able to assess manufacturing and auxiliary energy demands.For testing the applicability of this integrated hybrid approach, a prototype is developed based on an actual use case. The simplification procedure is presented and the energy performance results are compared with that of an established building energy modelling software, discussing advantages and limitations. Essential information that needs to be transferred from the BIM model is clarified and prioritised.

Keywords: Energy Efficient Production, Building Energy Modelling, Waste Heat Emissions, Hybrid Simulation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0181

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Ha_kan Norberg & Thomas Olofsson

A PROCESS MODEL FOR CONSTRUCTION SYNCHRONISATION USING TIME-SPACE PLANNING METHODS AND FIELD FORCE AUTOMATION

Abstract: This paper explores a proposed process model for construction synchronisation. The aim of the paper is to show the potential of working according to the Last Planner System of production and control by combining time-space planning methods and Field Force Automation. In addition, the paper aims to show the benefits of working with real time support regarding taking control actions in the schedule and to collect data for follow- up analysis. The paper first provides a background of the research and a description of the various methods and tools used in the process model. A process model is proposed based on the last planner and control system for the implementation of a new ICT tool with the purpose to enhance, planning and control in order to enhance construction synchronisation. It is concluded that site managers needs tools to change their view of planning from static view of the schedule which can be revised once or twice per project to the view that the schedule is a total dynamic instrument to be used to develop prognosis and measure for avoiding waste and delays in the realisation phase of the construction project. The paper is concluded with suggestions for how the method can be further developed and improved.

Keywords: Construction synchronisation, Last Planner, 4D modelling, location based scheduling, field force automation

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Joao P. Carneiro and Burcin Becerik-Gerber

Impact of Immersive and Interactive Information Visualization on OccupantÕs Lighting Choices

Abstract: Feedback systems often use Information Visualization (InfoVis) to inform occupants about the impact of their choices on energy consumption, aiming at reducing occupant behaviour related waste in buildings. In this pilot study, we use InfoVis as a tool to influence occupantsÕ opinions about a roomÕs lighting quality instead of their energy consumption. Lighting significantly affects occupantsÕ mood, productivity, and wellbeing. We utilize InfoVis to present the light quality data throughout a day via an animated daylight cycle, as well as light levels and light distributions through static and animated heat maps to enable occupants to make more informed decisions related to lighting. InfoVis is presented within the spatial context by overlaying visualizations on the room itself, on its floor and the desk surface, using an immersive virtual environment. The results show that the participants changed their choices once provided with more information related to the quality and amount of lighting in the room. Specifically, the participants changed their choices significantly more when the illuminance levels and distribution over time (dynamic heat maps) were presented. The findings of this research can inform the development of better visualization techniques that could increase occupant awareness about environmental conditions in buildings.

Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environment, Immersive Interactive Visualization, Informed Decision, Lighting Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0210

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L Manzione, M Wyse, R Sacks, L Van Berlo, S B Melhado

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS TO ANALYZE AND IMPROVE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION FLOW IN THE BIM DESIGN PROCESSand improve management of information flow in the BIM design process

Abstract: Thanks to the interoperability provided by the IFC standard, BIM technologies and IFC model servers are beginning to enable a design environment where the exchange of information among the actors can be synchronous and continuous using a single and central data model. Although this new set of technologies enables concurrent design, the problems associated with managing the flow of information itself in a concurrent design environment requires explicit management of editing rights and version control at the level of individual objects, rather than at the file level. However, while these are technical issues that have standard solutions, managing designers’ involvement in the process also becomes more challenging, requiring the development of new management methods suitable for the BIM collaborative environment.Common problems such as information ‘overflow’, incomplete modelling solutions or incorrectly matched technical solutions, and inventories of work in progress due to inattentive designers, if not treated methodically in the BIM platform, can quickly cause bottlenecks for the advancement of the process. The bottlenecks result in process waste (such as time spent waiting, large inventories of design information, processing sequences that cause unnecessary iterations, long cycle times and schedule overruns, etc.). Application of concepts that allow structuring and measuring of the information flow can improve the process and reduce the waste of resources, but there is no specific methodology for measuring information flow in a BIM environment. Taking a previous study, in which seven key performance indicators were developed and validated for application with conventional technology, as a starting point, this work has developed the methodology for using these indicators in a BIM project.

Keywords: information flow measure, collaborative design, model server, design management

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Laitinen J

Model based cost engineering as a basis for the management of cqnstruction process

Abstract: The traditional design and tender process without the integration of design - manufacturing - Construction hampers innovations in construction. The implementation and the use of product and process models will enable the simulation of buildings and allow their performance to be predicted before they are build. The building industry in all consists of several parties representing design, engineering, construction and systems, materials or components industry. Because of organisational segregation there is a great need of process integration in construction. In this paper is a description of new approakh for the construction process ahd its key player, made1 based cost engineering. Also the pilot environment for total product model usage in design and construct project is descnped. It is proved that there is a waste of money and time caused by non-integration of design and construction. The potential savings between a non-integrated process and a complete optimized process is theoretically calculated on 10 - 20% of the investments.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,407,422 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.039404) class.processing (0.020690) class.environment (0.011448)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


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