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A Akanmu, C J. Anumba, J I. Messner

Mechanisms for Bi-directional Coordination between Virtual Design and the Physical Construction

Abstract: There is considerable growth in the use of virtual models in the construction industry. Many projects are now based on fairly sophisticated models but the use of these models is often limited to the design and tendering/bidding stage. Much more benefit can be derived from these models by extending their use to the construction, operation and maintenance phases of a facility’s lifecycle. A good way of achieving this will involve real-time bi-directional coordination between as-designed models and the physical construction. This will enable improvements in progress monitoring, construction process control, archiving as-built status and active control of building components and sub-assemblies. To maintain bi-directional coordination, computational resources are required to tightly integrate the virtual models and the physical construction. This is termed a Cyber-Physical systems approach. This paper focuses on describing the role of the Cyber-physical systems approach in enhancing bi-directional coordination. It highlights the mechanisms necessary to facilitate this and presents future deployment scenarios to illustrate the potential benefits to the construction industry.

Keywords: Bi-directional coordination, Building Information Models, Cyber-Physical Systems, Physical Construction

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Full text: content.pdf (352,164 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Vasenev, F Bijleveld, T Hartmann, A Dorée

Visualization of asphalt paving process during operations on site

Abstract: Presently important changes are occurring in the road construction industry, resulting in changing roles of road agencies and contractors. Additionally, a lot of new asphalt mixes with new properties are introduced, such as warm or even cold asphalt mixes, thin surfaces, etc. Despite these changes, the current asphalt paving process still heavily relies on the skills and experiences craftsmanship. Instruments to monitor key process parameters are seldom applicable. To overcome these limitations, real-time visualizations of key indicators such as asphalt temperature could provide decisive information to working teams oriented to adjust their operations on site. To move towards real-time decision making support, this paper introduces a workflow to deliver information in meaningful way by providing close to real-time and easily understandable visualizations of asphalt temperatures to roller operators. Using modern technologies like DGPS, temperature linescanner, and wireless connection on site it is possible to deliver visual information about asphalt temperature to support roller operators’ decision making regarding working paths. To implement user-oriented visualization we outlined an overall workflow including equipment selection, infrastructure organization, data processing and visualization phases. We validated the feasibility of workflow implementation through visualization of asphalt temperature on a real-world asphalt paving project.

Keywords: Asphalt paving, construction, infrared thermography, visualization

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Full text: content.pdf (285,779 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Gehre, P. Katranuschkov, R. J. Scherer

Managing virtual organization processes by semantic web ontologies

Abstract: Interoperability within Virtual Organisations (VOs) is still only weakly supported by IT frameworks. Whilst service level interoperability has made remarkable progress since the emergence and the rapid growth of SOA and Grid technology in the last years, business processes – which are the driving force of each VO – still suffer distinct conceptual gaps regarding their decomposition to technical transactions. There exists no detailed approach that would allow describing technical as well as business aspects in a coherent yet flexible and extensible way. This paper presents a newly developed semantic framework that targets this requirement. The conceptual background is followed by an introduction of the developed semantic web ontologies. Based on these definitions, dedicated Ontology Services as well as a set of related end-user applications facilitating semantic technology have been designed and implemented. They are presented in the second part of the paper. Reported are results from the EU project InteliGrid (IST-004664; 2004-2007).

Keywords: semantic web, ontologies, virtual organisation, process modelling, process management

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Full text: content.pdf (973,369 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Agger K

Modeling the pragmatic solution

Abstract: An architectural project, designed with a modeling system was followed closely from sketching to detailed design, a report was made. Experiences on the use of a system with an architectural voca- bularium and architectural operations will be presented. The presentation will concentrate on how building modeling is facilitated by the system's understanding of building and buil- ding parts, and the way they are built together to form rooms, and on facilities to represent details without modeling in full detail as a short cut in modeling. The pragmatic solution to the problem of CAAD-systems with archi- tectural knowledge is discussed in terms of current limitations and further extensions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,332,591 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.024203) class.communication (0.009266) class.deployment (0.008203)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Al-Ghassani A M, Kamara J M, Anumba C J, Carrillo P M

A tool for developing knowledge management strategies

Abstract: While organisations recognise that Knowledge Management (KM) is essential for improving performance, many have difficulties in developing strategies for implementation. The nature of knowledge is of particular complexity in organisations such as those within the construction industry characterised by temporary 'virtual' organisations formed for the completion of projects. A significant proportion of construction organisations realise the benefits of KM but most remain at the infancy stages of developing and implementing KM strategies. This paper identifies the need for a methodology to help organisations establishing these strategies. It then describes a framework developed within the CLEVER (Cross-sectoral Learning in the Virtual Enterprise) project at Loughborough University. The framework introduces a methodology that supports KM at both the tactical and strategic levels in order to aid organisations, especially in the construction and manufacturing industries, in developing KM strategies. The methodology was encapsulated into a prototype software system to achieve a simpler format and is easier to use. Industrial collaborators evaluated both the paper format and the prototype software and it is evident that the developed methodology has the potential to provide a very useful way for developing KM strategies and that very little exists elsewhere to assist companies in developing KM strategies in this way. The software prototype was seen as an important enhancement to the paper version. The inviting format, simplified guidance, reduced input duplication, and automated report generation were found the most significant enhancements. The focus of this paper is on the development and operation of the prototype. Its key benefits and lessons learned in implementing it are highlighted in the paper.

Keywords: Construction organisations, knowledge management, KM strategies, software prototype.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Full text: content.pdf (557,833 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alekhin V,Antipin A,Gorodilov S,Khramtsov S

Numerical simulation of wind loads on high rise buildings

Abstract: Article presents a methodology of the numerical simulation of the wind on high-rise buildings, which was developed by the Department of Computer-aided design of structures of the Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. Paper includes the results of researches on development of a technique of determination of wind pressure upon high-rise buildings by means of numerical modeling in an ANSYS package. The investigation was carried out within the grant of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences. The results are applied to calculation of wind pressure upon a number of high-rise buildings under construction in Yekaterinburg City (Russia). Simulation is performed in the program ANSYS. The simulated building is placed in a domain that is the numerical analogue of wind tunnel. Domain sizes are chosen in such a way that simulated buildings do not affect the flow of air on its boundaries. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model has been used. This model effectively combines the stability and accuracy to the standard k-? model in the areas, which are placed near the walls and the effectiveness of the k-e model at a distance from the walls with a smooth transition between them (input expansion functions). For the numerical solution of the governing equations the finite volume method was used (FVM). The scale of the turbulence is assumed to be 200-300m. Use of the developed technique is shown on the example of calculation of wind pressure and wind velocities in pedestrian area for high-rise building under construction in the City of Ekaterinburg.

Keywords: high-rise building,wind impact,simulation,wind loads

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Alvise Simondetti

Designer’s toolkit 2020: a vision for the practice

Abstract: Designer’s toolkit is rapidly changing and design practices need a shared vision of what the short, me-dium and long term might be. With this in mind we interviewed twenty-four thought leaders in the design community worldwide. Four big ideas emerged from the interviews: transferring technologies from other industries has provided great bene-fits, but it has also generated the need to transfer processes; changes in the way we build drives changes in the de-signer’s desktop, including the representations that designers use to communicate; greater gains are achieved by focus-sing on the interplay of specialised algorithms; “just on time” design data improves design. Four possible contexts for the designer’s toolkit are described: the proprietor aimed at increasing productivity, the open-source aimed at increasing IT driven creativity, either more or less engaged with fabrication. Finally, the paper concludes by proposing what designers ought to be doing today. Actions include educating specialist toolmakers, custodian and math modellers; integrating computer controlled machine workshops into designers’ project spaces; the automation of repetitive design tasks; supporting communities around software tools and store project data according to geospatial co-ordinates.

Keywords: Design community, technology transfer, process transfer, designer's desktop, representation, communication

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Full text: content.pdf (451,568 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Amor R, Langham M, Fortmann J, Bloomfield D

The UK industry knowledge base feasibility study

Abstract: The UK Department of the Environment (DOE) has funded a feasibility study into the concept of an electronic knowledge base for the construction industry. It is envisaged that this knowledge base would provide a single point of entry for the UK, creating a gateway to all information of relevance to the A/E/C industry. A wide range of commercial, social and technical issues have been investigated in the study, which provides a recommendation of the best way forward together with a marketing strategy. The results of the feasibility study are summarised in this paper.

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Full text: content.pdf (44,131 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.069041) class.environment (0.026858) class.impact (0.018863)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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