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Carl P. L. Schultz, Robert Amor, Hans W. Guesgen, Brenda Lobb

A decision support software tool for reasoning about the subjective impressions of a lighting installation

Abstract: The discipline of architecture is concerned with finding a balance between both the functional and the subjective aspects of a building environment. This involves managing contradictory requirements that are often difficult to resolve through purely numerical analysis; an example of this is an electrical lighting installation designed to evoke a desired subjective impression or ‘atmosphere’, which may conflict with the visual requirements for accurate or safe task performance. Despite this, few software tools exist that directly support an architect when dealing with information relating to the non-visual effects of lighting. A fundamental limitation in standard software tools is the reliance on nu-merical approaches for representing and reasoning about lighting and construction related information. In particular, when information is uncertain or completely unavailable, numerical formulae can be awkward or impossible to use in a reliable way. Work in the field of qualitative reasoning has attempted to address these issues, and in this paper we pre-sent a prototype decision support software tool that reports on the subjective impressions of a lighting scheme, based on a qualitative spatial reasoning engine. Research in subjective response to lighting is reviewed and interpreted in the context of qualitative reasoning, and the prototype system is compared to studies on subjective impressions.

Keywords: Building environBenoMdecision support software , BenoMsp

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Chan P

The use of web-based tools to support a contractual claim in arbitration or litigation

Abstract: Most standard forms of building contracts provide for the use of arbitration as a means of dispute resolution, failing which, the parties have to settle their disputes in court. Each dispute is resolved by examining whether the party who makes a contractual claim is able to discharge his burden of proof in both the liability issue and the quantum issue. The scope of proof is usually prescribed by the building contract. Evidence of information, facts and opinions may be adduced in support of a claim. Most project information may be stored in a web-based information management system. In existence are also some IT applications which may assist in providing facts and opinions that may support a claim. 4D Modelling may be used to simulate critical paths for the evaluation of an extension of time claim. GPS may provide the tracking of the use of resources to help attribute the cost of their use to the basis of a claim. The latest technology of LADAR may assist by recording through time, the as-built status of the project at any one time thereby determining the real-time progress of work. The use of computer-generated evidence is provided for by legislation and case law. This paves the way to use web-based tools to support a contractual claim in arbitration or litigation by linking the whole system to a claims service that monitors the situations where a claim may be made and trigger off a warning so that the procedure of claim may be pursued by a party if he chooses to do so. The claims service should then extract the necessary data from the other services in the project web to build up a claim.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Charles-Edouard Tolmer and Christophe Castaing

Applying System and Requirement Engineering for Information Modeling in Infrastructure Projects

Abstract: The definition of LOD is currently subject of debate: Level Of Detail, Development, Definition, Information, etc. The question of the content of each LOD is generally discussed but much less the question of the real utility of these LOD. We first propose to apply system engineering on the whole project process documentation to identify the BIM uses scope. We then use requirement engineering to validate that modelling information is depending on requirement management. We complete this work with experimentation, applying system and requirement engineering on a specific system, longitudinal drainage system, defining this way a specific BIM use. This experiment complements our conceptual proposal for organizing process requirements related to project information management.

Keywords: System Engineering, Requirement Engineering, Information Management, Infrastructure Project, BIM

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0296

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Chege L W

E-commerce and value chain management – the prospects and challenges for the South African construction industry

Abstract: The utilization of e-commerce in business has been the subject of widespread and continued debate in recent years. The growth of e-commerce has been phenomena1 and it is radically transforming the way companies are doing business in all sectors, and the construction industry is no exception. Value chain management is an important concept in construction as it encompasses the activities that involve the transformation of inputs into outputs and the management of projects from development to final commissioning in order to maximize the value of a project. This paper will look at the potential applications of e-commerce in the South African construction industry with particular emphasis on their impact on value chain management. The potential applications to be reviewed are the development of electronic tendering procedures; electronic systems for the exchange of information on an ongoing project; and the electronic buying and selling of goods and services for utilization in the construction process. These e-commerce applications will invariably play an important role in enhancing the management of the value chain through improvements in the overall process from the initial tendering stage. Although e-commerce offers tremendous opportunities to the South African construction industry, these opportunities are not without challenges. This paper will also seek to address these challenges which include the issue of how to create an enabling environment to allow Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) to reap the potential benefits that e-commerce has to offer; and the issue of protection of privacy, confidentiality and anonymity of users of e-commerce systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (157,123 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.121775) class.environment (0.033381) class.impact (0.024337)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Chen S E, Ostwald M J

Design decision support from informed project time-cost performance simulation

Abstract: The time performance of a construction project contributes significantly to overall project costs, The greatest potential for achieving better time and cost performance lies in the design stage of the project. This is when decisions which have the greatest impact on project performance are being made. Designing for the best project time-cost solution involves a strategy of optimising project cost and time variables to find the best combination between these two parameters, such that project time and cost limits are not exceeded. In practice, this optimization strategy will need to take into account the project objectives, the client s needs and limitations for the project, and the way the architect can assimilate relevant information in the design process. The obstacles which have prevented such a strategy being feasible include the separation of the design function from time and cost evaluation functions, and the information technology to provide decision support in a timely and affordable mode. The paper describes the principles of time-cost planning and the conceptual framework for an expert system which can be informed of subjective factors particular to a project and simulate the construction time- cost performance of design alternatives. The feasibility of designing for the optimal time-cost solution with support from this simulation approach is discussed.

Keywords: information technology; time-cost planning; design decision support; expert systems; simulation

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Cheng J, Gruninger M, Sriram R D, Law K H

Process Specification Language for project scheduling information exchange

Abstract: Many project scheduling and management software systems are being employed in the construction industry. Standards-based translation is one way to achieve interoperability. This study discusses the applicability of the Process Specification Language (PSL) for exchanging project scheduling information among different applications. PSL was initiated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and is emerging as a standard exchange language for process information in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores how PSL can be used for exchanging project scheduling information among software programs in project management. Furthermore, we investigate how PSL could be utilized to reason about potential conflicts and to perform consistency checking on project scheduling information.

Keywords: process specification language (PSL), information exchange, consistency checking, project management

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Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Chiu M-L

The Nature of Managing IT and Its Managerial Challenges

Abstract: Management of information technology (IT) is increasingly important for organizations and users at the work environment. This paper, first, introduces the way IT is changing the work environment. Second, failure to integrate IT, building systems and the work environment is addressed as a result of the subdivision of responsibility by professional discipline and poor communications in team decision-making. Third, this paper describes the nature of managing IT, which is a life-cycle activity and a problem-solving business. Furthermore, managing IT requires multi-disciplinary participation in the delivery process. Finally, four managerial challenges are provided for all professions in the field, including to assess what the users need, plan for better systems integration, manage the project delivery process effectively, and use computer aids for education and training.

Keywords: information technology; project delivery process; decision-making; management; computer aids

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Full text: content.pdf (549,242 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansen T, Thomsen J

CAESAR - an architecture for enterprise modelling in the aec industry

Abstract: This paper reviews work in progress concerning information modelling in support of enterprise engineering, and discuses how important modelling challenges are being addressed to support more cost effective development of offshore installations for oil production in the Norwegian part of the North Sea. The paper describes a framework and a methodology for information modelling of real world project enterprises and presents initial application examples from the offshore oil and gas industry. CAESAR Offshore is a research program undertaken jointly by Norwegian oil companies, engineering ms, research institutions and the Norwegian Research Council, with the aim of utilising information-technology-based methods and tools which lead to more cost effective field development and operation. As a part of CAESAR Offshore we are developing an object oriented system architecture consisting of a framework and methodology for information modelling, based on our belief that complete and correct enterprise models of development projects must include both the project requirements, deliverables, activities and organisation. Thus information models of projects must represent both the objective, product, process and organisation dimensions. Based upon a model of engineering design, we explicate and relate the enterprise dimensions, and outline a way of describing the difference between planned action and actual behaviour. We implement our model architecture according to an information meta-model, based on a set of common reference entities, and a general offshore reference model. In our work we are using the offshore reference model, as the basis for modelling offshore platforms, design of hydraulic system for offshore production units, and project control systems for engineering design projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,790,144 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.023123) class.represent (0.009418) class.economic (0.008181)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Christiansson P, Modin J

Conceptual models for communicating knowledge in the building industry - implementation of the cube system

Abstract: This paper presents the conceptual models that emerged during the development of the Cube demonstrator in the Cube project at Lund University in Sweden. The Cube project was led by the Department of Construction Management with the systems development being done by the authors, at the KBS-Media Lab of the Department of Structural Engineering. The paper presents the underlying conceptual models for knowledge transfer used in the Cube system. In the Cube system the formalized rules do not apply to the knowledge itself but rather to the way it is conveyed. The goal for these models is to assist a growth of building knowledge that is driven from the building site and the daily situations there. It is showed how knowledge chunks are labeled and stored in answer boxes specific for each project or building site. Existing classification systems, BSAB, are implemented together with a dynamic limited vocabulary and task-oriented headings to form an efficient knowledge communication and retrieval system.

Keywords: knowledge capture; taxonomies; multimedia; knowledge transfer; database

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Full text: content.pdf (539,743 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Ciribini A, Rigamonti G

Computer network-based models and construction management: a critical analysis in the italian construction industry

Abstract: The paper describes the results of a survey performed by the authors about misunderstandings and pittfalls occurred to building contractors when using softwares for planning and scheduling wollcs. A different approach is suggested by the researchers; a simpler way to learn and exploit such tools is needed. Moreover, the paper reports some examples of improvement and enhancement in computer- aided network techniques.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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