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Claudio Mirarchi, Daniela Pasini, Alberto Pavan and Bruno Daniotti

Automated IFC-Based Processes in the Construction Sector: A Method for Improving the Information Flow

Abstract: One of the main challenges in the implementation of BIM-based processes concerns interoperability issues. In fact, even if IFC format is recognised as an ISO standard, different barriers and problems are often encountered in IFC adoption. Generally, obstacles are due to the difficulty of users in personalising import and export options of IFC formats in BIM authoring tools with the consequent possibility of information loss.The paper presents a method for improving the information flow, based on the connection of information stored in IFC files and in external databases through automated processes. Therefore, information concerning one single project can be stored in BIModels and linked to external sources or, conversely, referred from external databases to objects in BIModels.Benefits deriving from the adoption of the proposed solutions concern the limited size of BIModels, the possibility to store information not considered in the IFC schema, and the reduction of IT skills required to building operators for exchanging information in an interoperable way.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Sharing Data, Interoperability, IFC

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0274

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Colajanni B, Fornarelli A, Giretti A, Naticchia B, Pellitteri G

ASA, An interactive assistant to architectural designers

Abstract: In the management of information for the design case reasoning seems the best fit for simulating the real designer s behaviour. In order to construct a plausible interactive assistant to architectural designers three main problems are to be solved: the way of encoding and indexing technical knowledge in order to easily recover the best starting case; the way of giving semantics to sketches; the way of coming to terms with inconsistencies generated during the process. An interactive architectural assistant is proposed based on case reasoning, managing architectural information encoded in a memory of real instances of the architectural type of reference and technical information encoded according the SfB system. Its architecture is made of two main parts. The first includes case memory, case recovery engine, abstraction engine and the design board. It manages the general and specific case knowledge in its abstract and semantics given form. The second includes the tools to generate single objects composing the architectural organism both directly and in parametric form, constraint management and consistency checking. The representation of the state of the object is twofold as a drawing in the drafting board, as a symbolic representation in the design board in which all the attributes of the object are recorded together with their relationships. The graphics of the assistant is implemented in AutoCAD environment while the alphanumeric knowledge is implemented in Kappa. The general architecture of ASA and the single modules are described, followed by a simulation of a session of work.

Keywords: case reasoning; architectural assistant; knowledge engineering

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Costa F

The S:ITEC model: An integrated system of treatment of data and knowledge in construction

Abstract: Recently, in the field of Computer Aided Design (CAD), notable efforts have been made with theoretical results largely unproven due mainly to the difficulties of the large scale production required. On the other hand, other applications of an excessively practical nature have been developed which, however, present a high degree of difficulty in bringing about their integration. In the first case we would include, for example, representational Models and Classification Systems andin the second case the various CAD systems as well as the partial integration work carried out although often at a high level of specialization. This work means that, although each time we get nearer to reaching the goal where all these efforts would coincide, no concrete systemadaptable to the majority of models proposed has really yet been put forward or used for the various applications developed. A system whichwould meet these needs must do so in a single, integral manner (whicheven could be standardized in the most universal way possible) so that finally-the user could at any moment control in real time each and every one of the various decisions which must be taken along the difficult design path, understood as the process of conception. In order to achieve these objectives, what becomes fundamental is the adequate treatment of the various methods and elements on which we depend, in order to carry out our task so that, in some way or other, we can simplifyand reduce them to two single elements: Data and Knowledge. While it is certain that in the first case there is almost complete coincidenceamong most of the existing proposals in various parts of the world, in the second case there exists a wide range of approaches as well as arelative lack of concretion. The SITEC model (Integrated System for Treatment of Construction Elements), a research project being developedby the Catalan Institute of Construction Technology, is shown to be capable of providing the necessary integrat

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Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.028882) class.impact (0.010540) class.analysis (0.008722)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Côté S,Trudel P,Snyder R,Gervais R

An augmented reality tool for facilitating on-site interpretation of 2d construction drawings

Abstract: Two-dimensional drawings are the only type of design document that is legally approved for construction. For large construction projects, because of the drawings’ high level of abstraction and because of the very large number of drawings, interpretation and correct understanding of drawings is identified by some construction firms as their greatest single challenge. To do the building work as designed, the builder must understand the meaning of the drawings, and this comes from establishing a visual correspondence between the abstract 2D drawings and the physical environment. Unfortunately, that correspondence may not be easy to obtain when the structure of interest is not clearly visible from the user’s position (occlusion, differences between the model and the actual building, etc.). In this paper, we propose a technique that enables the display of 2D drawings into the real world using augmented reality in a way that can overcome those kinds of limitations. The tool enables users to browse the real world in search of drawings, or to request the real location that a specific drawing represents, and to view each drawing within a context composed of a combination of captured photographic reality and designed virtual modeling. Augmentation is achieved by displaying the drawing using either an animated sliding plane that shows it being inserted into the real building, or a clipping technique that displays the drawing inside a clipped 3D model which in turn is inside the real building. The 2 techniques were implemented and tested in a situation where section drawings are visualized from the outside of the building. Our results show that those visualization techniques provide good 3D perception in a representation that is easy to understand visually. They also enable quick localization of the drawing in its environment, and provide a better understanding of the drawing with respect to its context: the 3D model and the built environment.

Keywords: Augmented reality,panorama,construction,2D drawings,design,3D model

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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D Greenwood, S Lockley, O Jones, P Jones

THE EFFICACY OF REALISTIC VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS IN CAPTURING USER EXPERIENCE OF BUILDINGS

Abstract: Virtual models can offer early and inexpensive proxies of how the real environment will be experienced by its users. However, until relatively recently, the usefulness of virtual models has been constrained by the technological limitations of the software and hardware. Games engines now offer the industry a way to import multiple 3d formats to streamline workflow, with far greater realism and complex interactions with the created virtual environment. In order to be accepted as a reliable tool for design development and problem solving in architecture, engineering and construction, these virtual experiences must be capable of producing user-feedback that is credible. The assumption that a model of human experience from a virtual environment can be a dependable representation of how the real environment will be experienced needs to be tested. Such tests have hitherto offered inconclusive results and the paper reports on the early stages of a current project that aims to redress this. The use of equipment familiar to cognitive psychologists, such as lightweight head-mounted eye tracking systems, should enable comparisons to be made between user-experiences of real environments and their realistic virtual counterparts. Should the virtual environments be shown to communicate similar physiological responses from the participants and deliver similar experiential qualities when compared to the real environment, then it can be argued that they offer realistic visual representations and accurate representations of experience.

Keywords: Architectural design, Games, User experience, Virtual environments

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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D. Ye & T. Froese

A Unified Construction Project Management Arena

Abstract: To address the severe problem of information fragmentation in the construction industry, significant effort has gone into developing information interoperability techniques based on shared project data models. As a result, a wide range of software applications are able to exchange project information, resulting in significant efficiency and coordination improvements. Here, we extend this trend further, exploring the role of an information integrator system that allows users to work directly with the combined set of project information. An information integrator would work in conjunction with traditional applications, allowing users to create user-defined, multi-dimensional data views from the combined project data model, tailored to suit the needs of specific work tasks. In this way, users can maximize the benefit of the combined data model and enhance their ability to deal with the data interdependencies. This paper presents a technical framework for an information integrator for construction project management. It describes the requirements and technical solutions to achieve the necessary integration and flexibility at three layers of system architecture: the data layer, the application logic layer, and the presentation layer. Finally, it describes a prototype information integrator system called the Unified Construction Project Management Arena.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Diederiks H J, Van Staveren R J

Dynamic information system for modeling processes

Abstract: DINAMO is a dynamic Information System for Modeling of Design Processes. It is intended for use along with product models, data management systems and existing applications. In DINAMO a programming user can define processes. These processes are represented by graphs. The graphs are characterized by nodes and relations between nodes. Each node in a graph represents a task, and each relation can be restricted to conditions. So the way in which a process is actually been performed, that is the actual path to be evaluated through the graph, can depend on certain conditions. Processes and functions (= software modules) are available to the user as tasks. A consuming user can activate tasks; the DINAMO system regulates the dispatch of the tasks, conform the process and function definitions. Tasks are collected on sheets; sheets are collected in a task box. A task box can be regarded as a certain environment, determined by the programming user. A consuming user can choose between the environments which are available at that moment. With the DINAMO system software and process definitions can be re-used in a simple way.

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Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.035610) class.legal (0.023916) class.environment (0.015902)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Drogemuller R

Modelling static and dynamic knowledge during design

Abstract: The IS0 STEP standards for product data modelling and exchange are based on the use of Express. Express has acknowledged limitations. Modifications have been suggested to extend Express (Express-E) into a more object-oriented language and to add rules as a means of encoding knowledge. The EDM group have presented solutions to many of these limitations for the modelling of buildings. This paper discusses BDeCS (Building Design and Construction System), an interactive system that supports building design and construction. BDeCS uses ideas from Express, EDM and the various knowledge representation formalisms developed in AI research. The initial development of BDeCS concentrated on the representation of knowledge within the system. The user interface was then developed around methods of interacting with the howledge in as "natural" a way as possible. Limitations of both knowledge representation formalisms from the AI field and traditional software development have been identified. The needs for extensibility and sharing of information among all of the members of the building design and construction team have lead to a software architecture that is unique. Methods of organising teams of people to work concurrently on the one project, while maintaining consistency of the data have also been developed.

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Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.070743) class.software development (0.024602) class.represent (0.021522)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Duarte J P

Order and diversity within a modular system for housing

Abstract: This study evolves within the larger context of developing a housing production process that uses new technologies in order to allow industrialization in an innovative way, and so avoiding traditional industrialized processes flaws, such as the lack of housing customization and neighborhood diversity. It introduces elements of a methodology to achieve order and diversity in the systematic design of street facades within a modular system for housing. In its context both order and diversity refer to the spatial arrangement of architectural elements; order emphasizes repetition, whereas diversity emphasizes variation.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Durmisevic S, Ciftcioglu O, Sariyildiz S

An application of neural network in post-occupancy evaluation of underground stations

Abstract: "The architectural and construction design deals very often with the word quality. This term is so vague and broad that the main difficulty arises if one needs to determine its aspects. It is rather simple to deal with the quantifiable building standards. The problem is how to demystify and thereafter integrate this fuzzy concept of quality into design. As an example we will use underground stations as a design problem area for two reasons. First of all, these spaces are rather young structures that have a high potential in the future. The efficiency of underground transport and importance of multiple space usage in the densely built urban areas are only some benefits that these spaces can offer. But yet many realized underground projects were not satisfactory to the users. Second reason lies in a fact that these spaces have their own limitations. Some qualities that are so obvious for the aboveground buildings, such as daylight or view, are rather difficult to obtain in underground spaces. Therefore, in these spaces the word quality is even more sensitive. But the literature that the architects can consult regarding these problems is rather scattered and difficult to obtain. One of the reasons is a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories followed by the research results and applied techniques. In this paper we used the AI technique, a Neural Network, for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to develop a Support Model that will enable quality measurement of underground spaces in a systematic way. In order to avoid the ad-hoc design solutions for underground spaces, there is a need for systematic approach to their design. In such way the intuitive approach to problem solving can be minimized. This paper deals with following topics: 1. aspects that determine the quality of space 2. classification of psychological and spatial aspects 3. development of conceptual framework 4. application of Neural Network for post-occupancy evaluation 5. results and endeavor design guidelines First three topics will deal with criteria definition, which were necessary for design of the experimental part of a research. The experimental research, which was carried out at the site of one underground station, provided the necessary data. The main emphasis of the paper will be on Neural Network application (topic 4), which will be used to treat the data gathered on underground station. The main objective is to verify the consistency of the outcomes against the predefined criteria."

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.050429) class.impact (0.013741) class.social (0.008794)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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