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Huhnt W, Kluge M, Laufer H

Mapping technical processes into standard software for business support

Abstract: "Integrated software systems have been implemented in the last years to support business activities in companies including enterprise resource planing. These systems are characterized by the possibility to be customized with respect to the specific processes which already take place in companies. The use of these systems is not restricted to a specific industrial sector. It is of common use to support business activities of construction companies by these systems. Construction companies are characterized by extensive and complex processes which take place in technical divisions. These technical processes are executed for specific projects. To support the technical processes by an information system, two major problems have to be solved. The first problem is concerned with the interaction of the processes which take place in the projects and the processes which are independent of project work. The second problem is concerned with the interaction of technical processes and processes for the business activity. Existing software systems support project work. Therefore, these systems have to be expanded with respect to the technical processes. The paper presents a concept to expand existing software systems in such a way that technical processes are supported as a part of the project work in the context of a company. The technical processes are specified on the base of the set theory. The processes which are supported by the existing system are specified in the same manner. Both specifications are unified. On the basis of this unification, the interaction of the different processes is illustrated. In addition, the specifications are used for the implementation. The specifications of information are used to generate a schema for a data base and to expand the existing schema. The specifications of the tasks are used to identify algorithms which have to be implemented. Results are presented. Technical processes are shown which take place as a part of facility management. The interaction between these technical processes and existing processes is illustrated. On the basis of the existing system Navision financials, the support of technical processes is shown."

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Full text: content.pdf (289,195 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.025819) class.commerce (0.023190) class.strategies (0.014065)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Ian Flood, Raymond Issa, Wen Liu

New approaches for computer-based construction project planning

Abstract: The paper reviews the principles of existing computer-based planning tools, and proposes a syntheses of many of these ideas, along with some enhancements. The overall aim is to provide a single tool that embraces the ad-vantages of each of the current planning methodologies, and that is better suited to the demands of present-day con-struction project management. The specific objectives of the tool are simplicity in use, versatility in application, provi-sion of user insight into the functioning of a project, and effective optimization of the project objectives. At the func-tional level, the developments are concerned with: (i) the way in which a model is structured (simplifying model design and understanding); (ii) redefining the way in which tasks interact and depend on each other (so that the approach is no longer limited to a schedule-centric perspective with interactions occurring at discrete points in time); (iii) provid-ing a more realistic representation of resources and their dependencies to reflect the way work may actually be carried out on site (such as the use of flexible and divisible crews); (iv) the visualization (graphic representation) of both the model structure and work progress within an integrated format that also facilitates model development and editing; and (v) optimization of the overall project objectives. The principles of the existing and proposed new approach to project planning are discussed and rationalized, and application of the new approach is demonstrated and compared to exist-ing planning methodologies for some example construction processes.

Keywords: project planning; project optimization; critical path method; hybrid continuous-discrete simulation; lin-ear projects

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Ito Y,Soulier C,Pencreach Y,Hafferty B,Hafferty P

The application of cloud computing in transport planning using interactive 3D VR simulation technology

Abstract: The design and planning of urban and transport infrastructure has undergone a tremendous transformation over the past few years. Not only has the available software technology changed considerably, so have the requirements and demands of the various stakeholders. As the democratic process becomes even more open, coupled with the advent of 24/7 information and news, so the demands of the general public to have a greater say in the actions that have a direct effect on their lives have increased. Local and National Government planning professionals are under increasing pressure to not only justify what they plan to do in words and pictures, but also to show the proposed new developments in a medium that is far more easily understandable to the ordinary ‘man in the street’. In the recent past the only way to do this was by calling ‘town hall meetings’ and displaying large photographs, video clips or solid models. This paper describes a new and novel way to improve consensus building for contentious new infrastructure projects, by using Interactive 3D Visual Simulation computer models, delivered to the target stakeholder community via the Cloud.

Keywords: 3D,Visualization,VR,Cloud Computing,Urban Planning,3D City Modeling

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Full text: content.pdf (689,297 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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J Haymaker, M Fischer, K Burke & William McDonough

Tools to Signal C2C Design Intention

Abstract: In this paper, we present a vision and requirements for how IT can support sustainable design and construction in the AEC Industry. We illustrate our vision with examples from a project designed by William McDonough Partners, a leader in the field of the design of sustainable building. As part of the design process, designers develop a multi-disciplinary design narrative that captures the essence of the design and the designers' intentions. However, today's IT does not support designers in developing and maintaining this narrative with the flexibility and integration required. We discuss the extent to which existing IT approaches address the requirements for design tools, and introduce the Perspective Approach as a way forward to address these requirements, applying the Perspective Approach to the examples. The Perspective Approach builds on project modeling approaches to enable engineers to establish the relationships of their information to the information produced by other engineers. In this way, an integrated project model is not prescribed by an a priori defined project modeling schema that has been implemented by software programmers, but emerges as the design evolves in response to project-specific challenges and opportunities. The Perspective Approach is our first attempt at developing a method to enable engineers to document, communicate, and explore the multi-disciplinary design narratives necessary for the design of sustainable buildings.

Keywords: Design Requirements, Sustainable design

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Series: w78:2004 (browse)
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J Haymaker

Formalizing and managing the dependencies between models

Abstract: AEC professionals need information models that are structured for their specific tasks. They also need to be able to control the integration of these models with the models of other professionals. In this paper I propose methods for formalizing and managing the dependencies between information models. Using these methods, an AEC professional constructs an information model, called a Perspective, and specifies the sources and nature of its dependency on other Perspectives. He specifies the nature of the dependency using a reasoning algorithm called a Perspector that describes the automated or manual reasoning needed to construct the dependent Perspective from its source Perspectives. He uses Management Processes to control the integration of the dependent Perspective as its source Perspectives are iteratively modified. AEC professionals apply this method repeatedly and collaboratively to compose and control directed acyclic graphs of Perspectives and their dependencies, called Narratives. Narratives provide a simple, formal, visual, flexible, distributed, yet collaborative way to construct and control the integration of multiple task-specific Perspectives. They are intended to help AEC professionals communicate, integrate, and automate multidisciplinary design processes and the information models used in these processes.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


J van Leeuwen, Hendricx A, Fridqvist S

Towards dynamic information modelling in architectural design

Abstract: Product modelling has received a lot of attention in the last decennium and is now growing into a successful means to support design and production processes, also in the area of building and construction. Collaboration through data exchange and model integration are coming within reach for all participants in the building process. However, the applicability of the current approaches in product modelling for architectural design is still very limited. It is the nature of architectural design to give much importance to issues such as uniqueness and diversity in relation with architectural style. Particularly in the earlier stages of the design process, not just technical but also cultural issues play an important role. Standardisation and predefined methodologies of design are not generally appreciated during early design, when ambiguity and a dynamic way of handling design information is often considered very important. The success of computer support for architectural design therefore depends on how well it supports ambiguity and a dynamic handling of design information. This criterion for successful design support systems seems to oppose the need for standardisation and classification that is felt so strongly in the later stages of the building process. The paper describes and discusses three long-term, independent research projects that are being carried out in three European universities: the BAS·CAAD project [1], the IDEA+ project [2], and the VR-DIS project [3]*. While their initiatives were independent and the developments are not formally related, these three projects show strong similarities in terms of objectives, conceptual approach, and methodology. The paper demonstrates that these parallel research projects are paving a new way for the development of design support systems, allowing architects to profit from the benefits of product modelling technologies and enabling integration of early design stages in the complex process of building design and construction. The common objectives of the projects are identified in detail. One of the major issues is schema evolution, or the necessity for a design model to be conceptually adaptable as design proceeds and more information is becoming available or design decisions are reversed. It is also recognised that no assumptions can be made about design methods, and that design information models must support, for instance, both spatial design and design that starts from building elements. Design concepts such as space and user activity play an important role in early design stages and must take a central role in design models as well. Approaches to achieve these objectives can be positioned in the force-field of two pairs of opposite characteristics of design information models. The first pair is (1a) maximum consistency and optimal data exchange through rigidly predefined typologies, versus (1b) maximum flexibility and extensibility of typologies in the conceptual schema. The second pair distinguishes approaches based on (2a) domain independent concepts from those based on (2b) specific domain concepts. The paper discusses the position in these force-fields of each of the three projects, which also clarifies their individual theoretic bases for information modelling. Although these theoretic bases are different in the three projects, common for all three is the object orientation of their approach and, more importantly, the effort to disconnect the identification of objects from the properties of objects. This appears to be an effective means to facilitate flexibility. Also common to the three projects, but elaborated very differently in each of them, is the capability of user-defined extensions to the conceptual schema. Both these issues of flexibility and extensibility are discussed in detail in the paper. Finally, the paper summarises the individual conclusions drawn in three PhD theses reporting intermediary and final results from the projects. This leads to the final discussion of the potentials of schema evolution for the integration of early design stages in the product modelling process. As a basis for the next generation of architectural design support tools, dynamic information models can be expected to deliver an important contribution to the rationalisation of architectural design and are an important next step in solving the conflict between computer tools and designers’ creativity.

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Full text: content.pdf (251,036 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.026635) class.communication (0.026053) class.represent (0.024858)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


J. Beetz & B. de Vries

Building Product Catalogues on the Semantic Web

Abstract: In this paper we describe a prototype implementation of an ontology repository that captures the concepts in the Ontology Web Language OWL. We describe how these concepts can be used directly by embedding them in standard HTML pages and thus augmenting traditional product catalogues with semanti-cally rich information by means of RDFa. As an addition to the ISO part 12006-3, where such a mechanism is not specified explicitly, we propose a way to instantiate actual products, their types and attributes through an instance-of relationship. Building upon the rich family of Semantic Web standards such as SPARQL and RDFa, we demonstrate how information in building product catalogues can be made machine-accessible in more efficient and generic ways. Using the Open Source persistency frameworks we demonstrate how real-world products can be linked to 13,000+ concepts with some 44,000 names in different languages in efficient ways.

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Full text: content.pdf (82,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Janne Porkka, Kalle Kähkönen

Software development approaches and challenges of 4D product models

Abstract: Experiences from projects utilizing 4D have been promising. Several companies together with researchers have seen 4D applications as potential products for lucrative business. The promising business prospects have resulted in numerous more and less intuitive attempts to develop such products. This paper draws commonalities from various approaches and reviews 4D applications from the viewpoint of product models. It is considered that now it is an appro-priate time to look at the development strategies and achievements so far, and, based on lessons learned show the way forward. First the principles for reaching 4D product models are covered. Various approaches in current commercial 4D appli-cations are considered. One of the solutions used as ground information is Visual Product Chronology (VPC), devel-oped by VTT. Second the paper addresses the obvious challenges of 4D product models. There are obstacles waiting to be resolved before 4D is comprehensively harnessed for project management purposes. One of these obstacles is standardization, or more specifically the lack of it. One of the most potential formats for open BIM standard is Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs). The use of IFCs for scheduling and 4D purposes is discussed. Finally new approaches from on-going research project 4DLive are addressed; preliminary results recognized are 1) open communication protocol for application integration, and 2) building site scenery linkage to product modelling. Possibilities and benefits exist on advanced designing and marketing solutions.

Keywords: BIM, 4D, scheduling, data exchange

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Full text: content.pdf (525,317 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Jeehee Lee, June-Seong Yi, Jeongwook Son and Ye-Eun Jang

Pre-Bid Clarification for Construction Project Risk Identification Using Unstructured Text Data Analysis

Abstract: This paper analysed construction bidding information in order to define risk factors that can be appeared in the bid documents of construction projects. For this purpose, text analysis was conducted on biddersÕ inquiry information (Pre-bid RFI), which inquires uncertain information and omissions in the bid documents in order for pre-bid clarification. From the results of the analysis, what types of risk factors exist in the bid documents and what parts of the bid documents can be pre-reviewed to proactively respond to the uncertain ownerÕs requirements. The results are expected to be used as important information for pre-bid clarification of bid documents. Moreover, this study can be meaningful in that it provides a comprehensive way to grasp a large amount of 1,054 documents without analysing the contents of individual documents directly through analysis of bidding information of construction projects using text mining.

Keywords: Bid Documents, Pre-Bid Clarification, BiddersÕ Inquiries, Text Mining

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0028

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Jerzy Pokojski

Integration of knowledge based approach and multi-criteria optimization in engineering design

Abstract: The paper contains proposals of integration of knowledge based approach and multi-criteria optimization in engineering design. The proposals reflect a human's way of solving problems. The paper also presents the concept of an environment for computer support of car transmission systems design equipped with the knowledge based and multi-criteria optimization modules.

Keywords: knowledge based systems, multi-criteria optimization, engineering design

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Full text: content.pdf (539,014 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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