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Jesus M. de la Garza, Ignaci Roca, Jennifer Sparrow

Visualization of Failed Highway Assets Through Geo-Coded Pictures in Google Earth and Google Maps

Abstract: The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) has adopted an innovative highway asset management program known as Performance-Based Road Maintenance. Under the Virginia Tech-VDOT Partnership for Highway Maintenance Monitoring Programs, Virginia Tech’s Center for Highway Asset Management Programs provides independent assessment and technical leadership to support innovations in highway maintenance contracting and asset management practices. In the past, VDOT’s only way of checking a failed asset item was to go out to the field. This was very time consuming, especially if the assets were numerous or far apart. Moreover, it was often difficult to locate a specific asset item failure in a given segment. In other cases, finding the failure was impossible, since the condition of some asset items can change in a short span of time. This paper presents the development of a comprehensive system to display pictures of failed asset items. The major contribution of this system is to provide VDOT a tool to check any failed asset item from any computer with an Internet connection, eliminating the need to go out to the field and visit each individual site. The proposed technologies and processes were implemented as a pilot project in the Staunton South 2009 Maintenance Rating Program Evaluation. Results from the pilot project were used to evaluate how the system can enhance current highway asset management practices.

Keywords: Quality management, building information modeling, civil information modeling, facility management, IFC

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Full text: content.pdf (2,070,676 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Johansson P, Edlund B

Case-based structural design -reusing design calculation documents

Abstract: If the information used by a designer during the design process could be captured, stored in a computer and reused as a natural part of the design process, many design problems could be solved more easily. Such information does not contain general information. It is instead created to be valid for a specific design situation. Design calculation documents is one example of documents containing such case-based information. How to use the information in earlier design calculation documents when solving new design problems in a rational way is the object of the study described here.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Jordan M,Jeffrey H

Experiences of implementing BIM in Skanska facilities management

Abstract: The benefits of BIM (Building Information Modeling) in design, construction and facilities management (FM) are well documented. However, the adoption of BIM in the construction sector is slow, with BIM implementation in facilities services lagging even further behind. Several reasons have been offered for the slow uptake of BIM, such as issues with IT interoperability, lack of understanding of BIM and variable expectations of the system. Difficulties with clearly articulating FM BIM requirements and the inevitable changes to long-established work processes could be the key to the slow progress of BIM in facilities management. Detailed case-studies of BIM implementation in UK FM organisations are not forthcoming. The facilities management team at Skanska has embraced BIM and this paper describes the challenges the team faced when it prepared the business for a ‘BIM way of working’, and some early benefits achieved from the fledgling BIM implementation. The paper highlights the importance of clarifying BIM aspirations and identifying and understanding information requirements before focusing on technology, and the importance of only selecting information that can be beneficially utilised. Once information requirements are agreed, identifying when in the building lifecycle the information should be made available requires careful consideration. These timing decisions require close collaboration with and an understanding of other participants, particularly in the design process. The paper highlights the need to review existing work processes and the time dedicated to the task should not be underestimated. The paper also describes the inevitability of having to change existing work processes (not just in the FM team), the associated challenges and how these challenges were approached by the Skanska facilities Services team. One of the benefits of BIM that is difficult to quantify is this greater co-operative approach and reciprocal understanding of each stakeholder’s needs and constraints. Engaging with people first, adapting existing processes and then using IT systems intelligently are the keys to successful BIM implementation.

Keywords: BIM,Building Information Modeling,Standards,Data,Information,Implementation,Benefits

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Full text: content.pdf (495,410 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Jukka Rönkkö, Jussi Markkanen

Lightweight 3D IFC visualization client

Abstract: We describe a construction product model 3D visualization client software concept that can be used in advanced meeting room, virtual reality and construction site augmented reality applications. Its main target is to im-prove construction project communication and understanding through visualization. It provides Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) geometry visualization capabilities to existing applications that can incorporate a Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) module to communicate with the visualization client at runtime. To accomplish this we present a software architecture based on UPnP networking standard that allows the visualization client to engage in two way runtime data exchange with existing construction project applications such as project management, cost estimation and quantity cal-culation applications. The client runs on laptop, desktop and portable tablet PCs. It offers stereoscopic viewing and spacemouse navigation for immersive virtual reality applications and live camera source background as well as exter-nal viewpoint control for augmented reality applications. We describe some usage scenarios of this concept, compare it to others and present early results as this work is part of an ongoing effort in Virtual Building Environments project.

Keywords: virtual reality, augmented reality, advanced meeting rooms, ubiquitous computing, IFC visualization

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Full text: content.pdf (282,453 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Jun Wang, Wenchi Shou, Peng Wu and Xiangyu Wang

Linked Data for Cross-Domain Constraint Information Sharing in LNG Construction

Abstract: Reliable construction plans are vital for effective collaboration across a projectÕs design, procurement and construction. Numerous constraints arising from engineering, supply chains and construction site are the main factors affecting planning reliability. Currently, there is not an efficient way to access all these constraint information because they are stored in various systems and managed by multiple domain participants. This paper aims to utilise Linked Data Technology to enable links to be set between data (i.e. constraint information) in different systems and therefore connect these systems into a single global data space. A prototype of the proposed approach was developed and tested on a sample LNG project.

Keywords: Linked Data; Ontology; Constraint Information Sharing; Liquefied Natural Gas; Lean Construction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0318

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Junge R, Ammermann E, Liebich T

Product model: a basis for next generation CAAD

Abstract: Even at the very beginning of the use of computers in architecture there had already been the vision to use the new medium for more than just copying the draught man's way of work [l]. Thus, the search for such a computer assisted or even computer automated de- sign process, either for the more artistic or for the more constructive part of the architectural design process, has lasted as long as the history of CAD in architecture itself This search follows different concepts, which are, with more or less intenseness, AI approaches. The more artistic and creative aspects are to be solved by, e.g., Shape Grammar or Case Based Reasoning, the more constructive aspects by Expert Systems. These are approaches on a very high and demanding level. It is still not clear, how far the progress will lead to usability in practice. A more pragmatic but surely arduous approach is to built next generation CAAD system on the basis of a product model. The product model, however, will be a sound foundation for using case based or expert system approaches in a further step of the development. The Next CAAD project follows this approach. The model defines and describes the architectural design objects, their relations, dependencies and constraints. This will be done in a stepwise manner. A stepwise approach is also followed for the handling of dependencies and constraints. In a first phase the user will have to set the rules. In next phases small rule based modules will be taken over as far as they are proved useful.

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Full text: content.pdf (725,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.039372) class.analysis (0.033708) class.represent (0.021597)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kaka A P

A intelligent knowledge-based system for capturing projects’ performance and initiating tendering strategies

Abstract: "The paper will describe a knowledge-based system developed to capture, process and analyse records of past performance in ordered to help contractors to initiate future strategies and actions. A detailed study of the of a major contractor’s Management Information Systems showed, inter alia, that the “Cost Value Reconciliation” forms (CVR’s), produced on a monthly basis by the contractor’s Surveyor, held a large amount of data unused by the contractors except for the purpose of performance control. Examination of the data revealed that if processed and stored in a central database, it could provide invaluable source of information to contractors for analysing performance and initiating strategies both on the project level and the company level. A subsequent survey of fifteen other contractors revealed that substantially identical CVR procedures were in universal use. It was therefore decided, in order to facilitate the adoption of the proposed system by contractors, to use a CVR format as a data capture facility for the system. Actual CVR sheets used by different contractors were studied, The type of records used in these sheets were examined in terms of their usefulness to management in terms of measuring progress and initiating future actions other than cost control. Further variables that are not currently in use in CVR sheets were introduced. A mathematical model was developed to process these monthly records into useful information subsequently called performance variables (i.e. variables used to measure the contractor’s performance with respect to the project). Finally, further variables were introduces to the system in order to facilitate the sharing of information between different projects. These variables were called Contract Classification Variables (i.e. variables used to describe the project) and contract performance variables) and included nine criteria by which a contract is defined or grouped (e.g. method of tendering, method of procurement etc.). These criteria were identified by contractors as the most important factors influencing contracts’ characteristics and performance. The Contract Performance Variables are the information that can be extracted from the CVR sheets and used to form new strategies (e.g. rate of mark-up on different projects, payment delays etc.). The model was developed in such a way that when a contract is started, the contractor enters the classification and the performance variables in the Individual Project Module. As the contract progresses and actual data become available, the contractor starts to fill the CVR sheets on a monthly basis. When the contract is completed, a the model process the CVR sheets and as a result summarise the performance of the project in terms of the performance variables and the data (including contract classification variables) are sent to the central Database. When a new contract is considered, the contractor defines the project in terms of its classification variables. The model queries the Database for the characteristics of past projects that match the same classification. Once the data is retrieved and processed a set of contract performance variables is predicted for that particular contract. The above method will work as long as adequate similar past projects are found and retrieved from the Database. However, finding adequate data is not always possible, particularly in the early years of applying the proposed model. Also, certain classification variables are not finite in terms of the options available (such as the client for the contract). An Intelligent Data Retrieval system has therefore been developed to overcome this problem. This paper will also explain this system and how the knowledge behind it was elicited."

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Full text: content.pdf (301,794 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.022609) class.processing (0.020626) class.analysis (0.019940)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Karhu V

Product Model Based Design of Precast Facades

Abstract: In Finland, approximately 80 % of the facades of buildings are manufactured as precast units. Currently one of the obstacles to making the overall design and construction of precast building facades more efficient is the exchange of data about facades between architects, structural engineers and precast element manufacturers. The product model approach seems to offer a new methodology for data exchange and sharing which would solve many of the current problems. This paper presents the results of research carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in which this approach was tested. The prevailing way of designing facades was chosen as a reference process model. Based on an analysis of data needs in the different stages of the process a product data model of a facade was developed. The product data model was restricted to facades only and does not include other information about the building. Central data structures in the conceptual schema define how a precast concrete facade consists of precast concrete units, i.e., elements. Structural wall layers that may have openings form the elements. The conceptual schema was implemented as a prototype which was based on existing software, modified and further developed. The prototype was tested by an architectural design company, a structural design company and a manufacturer. The main conclusion of testing was that the data produced in the architectural design is directly usable in further design. The structural or element design may use the architectural data as such. Also, it is possible to create applications that take into account the architect's preferred design approach.

Keywords: facade, precast, data exchange, object oriented, architectural design

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1997/1 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1997 (browse)
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Karlsson H

Classification and coding, a necessary tool for the improving the information flow in the building process. Developments in Sweden and within CIB w4

Abstract: During the 20 minutes I have got at my disposal I will describe how we in Sweden today regard the need for tools for an improved information flow in the building process and how we try to solve our problems, I will also touch upon the relation of this work to international development work. The name of this session is ' Classification ' . We have got some critisism for that as it hints at a more restricted subject than really intended. The aim of the work described during the session is to improve the information flow in the building process. Classification and coding are important tools for the realization of that goal but only tools , not ends . The title 'Classification ' was chosen for brevity . Improving the information flow is something very practical and the consequences may even be described in dollars or pounds or whatever currency you choose. Also the way we try t o achieve our goals is down t o earth. You must during the whole development work have a close relation to the users of our results .

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Full text: content.pdf (2,530,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.023430) class.impact (0.022812) class.retrieve (0.015304)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Kiiski M

Product model based software for structural design

Abstract: Tekla Oy is developing a software package called Xbuild for the design and detailing of steel and concrete structures. The development focuses on two main areas: steel structure design and design of reinforced concrete structures. Accordingly, Xbuild consists of two main parts: Xsteel and Xconcrete software modules. The basic idea behind the Xbuild is to build a logical product model of the steel concrete structure. This product model is stored in a relational database and it is created by using sophisticated interactive 3D-modelling tools. All documentation needed for the manufacture and construction of the structure - drawings, material lists, NC-preprocessor files - can then be produced from the product model. Xsteel includes modelling tools for beams, columns, connections, plates, weldings, bolts and other components of a steel structure. Most of the standard components used in Finland and other European countries are stored in component libraries such as profile, connection and bolt libraries. The modelling is object-oriented, which makes the model "intelligent". Every component in the structure is an object in the product model database and objects can be connected to each other by certain rules. In practise this means that for instance when a beam is being moved, the adjoining joints will follow. Every object is stored in the database only once, which ensures the coherency of the database in all situations. The 3D-model, drawings and lists are just "views" to the database - all design modifications can only be made in the model. This way the user can be sure that all documentation of the model is always up to date. Xconcrete is based on the same principles as Xsteel. The main difference is that Xconcrete can also handle the reinforcement bars in an intelligent way by utilizing object-oriented techniques. The database structure of Xsteel and Xconcrete is relational. The contents of the database can be written out in any format specified by the user. This enables data transfer between Xbuild and any other product model based software. It is also possible to link other applications, such as strength analysis and dimensioning, production planning and cost calculation, to Xsteel by using an open linking inter- face. In addition to this, the Xbuild software modules include tools for creating user specified macros - a feature that enables users to develop own Xbuild "applications". Today Xsteel is used by several engineering and steelwork companies in Finland as well as abroad. Xconcrete is still partially under development and will be completed in the near future. As the construction process, codes of praxis etc. differ a lot in different countries, the requirements set on the software vary quite much from one country to another. Therefore the software has to be easy to adapt into different design environments. The results gained by the users show that the product model based approach is radically improving the productivity and quality of the design work. On the other hand it is clear that using a sophisticated product model based design software sets new requirements for the designers and manufacturers of structures.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,306,080 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.036567) class.represent (0.028935) class.analysis (0.028125)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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