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A decision support system for building refurbishment design

Abstract: "Refurbishment work in the EC currently accounts for more than one-third of the total construction output. This market is expected to grow stronger with the progressive ageing of buildings and the environment impetus to retain buildings. A further dimension is the need to adapt buildings for a greying population. There are important differences between refurbishment and new construction works. The existing building constraints the design solutions, construction technologies and work methods. Mechanisation, planning, and efficient organisation of refurbishment work is difficult, due to the small, labour intensive, and ad hoc, dynamic nature of the work. Also due to the relatively small scale of refurbishment projects, there have been no opportunities for standardisation and the applications of prefabrication and industrialisation are limited. Today, larger sized contractors are rapidly moving into the refurbishment market, in response to the shrinking new-build market and the higher technological demands of large scale refurbishment projects. The EC funded Brite Euram project 4670 is titled ‘Decision Support Systems for Building Refurbishment.’ This project has started in August 1998 and will finish in July 2001. Its objective is to develop a socio-technological-commercial framework and corresponding Decision Support Systems (DSSs) for housing refurbishment, to achieve: ? refurbishments which are more focused on user requirements; ? refurbishment designs which take into account the constraints of the existing building structure; ? increased incorporation of industrialised systems and components; ? organisational procedures and production technologies that recognise the unique nature of refurbishment work. The project is divided into three tasks. Task one aims at developing a DSS for the determination of the refurbishment demand and ballpark costs. Task two involves the development of a DSS for refurbishment design. Task three will result in a DSS for refurbishment process planning and control. This paper describes the approach followed for the ongoing development in task two, the DSS for refurbishment design. The main objectives of this task are to provide decision support at the project level. It will develop a database of layouts of representative existing housing estates and a database of preferred refurbishment layouts for these representative existing housing estates. Another database will be developed containing information on building systems and components that are relevant for the refurbishment process. Task two will establish a protocol for refurbishment design support. This protocol, which is implemented in a decision support information system, involves a number of steps that aid the user in selecting an appropriate housing layout and building systems and components that meet the user’s requirements. These steps involve the evaluation of a the user’s refurbishment demands and selection of a matching representative existing housing layout. Based on further dialog with the system, a preferred refurbishment layout is selected, which in turn is used as the basis for the selection of building systems and components that meet the performance requirements as stated by the user. The paper describes the methodology that is implemented in the system for retrieving performance requirements from the user, and the approaches for matching these to the stock of existing and preferred housing layouts available in the system’s database. The system is characterised by a flexible architecture of both the databases and the user interface, which results in a scalable system that allows the expansion of the databases with new graphical layouts and building systems and components, as well as the addition of new kinds of performance requirements. The system is implemented as an Internet application, which allows the database to be maintained centrally and facilitates world wide access to the system. The system’s implementation involves the combination of graphical and non-graphical data that can be queried and matched with only typical Internet browsing software installed at the client-side."

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Full text: content.pdf (465,782 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029035) class.environment (0.012122) class.impact (0.010657)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Alexander J, Coble R, Crawford J, Drogemuller R, Leslie H, Newton P, Wilson B, Yum Kwok-Keung

Information and communication in construction : closing the loop

Abstract: Both nationally and internationally, the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is highly fragmented : it is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the nature of information and knowledge can be dispersed among firms and organisations, and consortia are frequently formed from geographically dispersed firms. In recognition of the potential improvements to be gained through an integrated approach to project information used throughout the design, documentation, construction and operation processes, substantial research is underway in Australia to "close the loop" of information flows between designers and constructors. The paper will explore and discuss both the technology platform in terms of information and communications technology (mobile, high-speed and wide area networking linking the design and engineering offices with the construction site) and the information platform in terms of the content of communications between project stakeholders and the requisite information (traditional spatial as well as non-spatial data) of key concern to the stakeholders at various stages of the project lifecycle. The paradigm shift that has occurred over recent years from stand-alone personal computing (which reinforced fragmentation) to mobile and Wide Area networked computing now provides a platform capable of promoting integration, accessibility and co-operation within the sector with attendant gains in efficiency. A minimum requirement to achieve these gains is access to the right information (not just simple data) at the desired level of scale and detail for a particular stakeholder’s view - information which once collected can be stored and refined and then held for use elsewhere on the project without loss and without the need for subsequent re-entry. The information needs to be available quickly and easily, that is at the right time and in the right location for maximum benefit and project efficiency. Demonstration collaborative systems to support interactive Computer Aided Design and information exchange between project stakeholders such as architects, various engineers (electrical, hydaulic, mechanical, structural) and project managers, in an innovative collaborative manner have become available to bring dispersed project members together electronically. Such systems allow project members attached to a network to undertake a range of information access and exchange from simple e-mail; through on-site access to central project data sources via handheld computers; right through to the use of optional live (or pre-recorded) video to enhance collaboration. Using communications infrastructure, this functionality can be shared in various ways - in a corporate-wide environment between regional and/or interstate offices within a company, or in a consortium situation (between offices of a consortium working together on a specific construction project). The questions then arise as to how such systems fit into industry practice, and how the industry might adapt to embrace new opportunities provided by such technological advances. Ease of access to up-to-date, accurate project information for a range of project stakeholders is being extended through research in the US and Australia to close the loop between some of the stakeholders, and this will be discussed in detail in the paper. As well, the progress of industry-based support for a level of interoperability for building and construction information by organisations such as the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI Australasian chapter) will also be discussed, plus the likely impact of the adoption of Industry Foundation Classes in the Australian building and construction industry in areas such as the design life for buildings based on durability of materials.

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Full text: content.pdf (719,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.057235) class.environment (0.023003) class.synthesis (0.022896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Langham M, Fortmann J, Bloomfield D

The UK industry knowledge base feasibility study

Abstract: The UK Department of the Environment (DOE) has funded a feasibility study into the concept of an electronic knowledge base for the construction industry. It is envisaged that this knowledge base would provide a single point of entry for the UK, creating a gateway to all information of relevance to the A/E/C industry. A wide range of commercial, social and technical issues have been investigated in the study, which provides a recommendation of the best way forward together with a marketing strategy. The results of the feasibility study are summarised in this paper.

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Full text: content.pdf (44,131 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.069041) class.environment (0.026858) class.impact (0.018863)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Andrea Buda, Tuomas Kinnunen, Bhargav Dave and Kary Främling

Developing a Campus Wide Building Information System Based on Open Standards

Abstract: University campuses can significantly benefit from IoT technologies, especially from operational efficiencies and user experience perspective. Traditionally, such systems have been limited to lab based environments, where involvement of end-users is limited and the results may not reflect reality. To build IoT systems for real-world that are reliable and relevant, it is important to build experiments in real-world conditions and involve end-users. From technological perspective, there is a need for convergence of diverse fields ranging from Building Information Systems and Building Services to Building Automation Systems, IoT devices and finally the campus services that include academic and research activities.This paper outlines the efforts to develop a campus wide web based system called Otaniemi3D that provides information about energy usage, occupancy and user comfort by integrating Building Information Models and IoT devices through open messaging standards (O-MI and O-DF) and IFC models. The paper describes the design criteria and the system architecture and the workflow to generate the information needed to develop such a system.

Keywords: Internet of Things, BIM, Smartcampus, Open Standards

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0338

Full text: content.pdf (3,682,096 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Andrew P. McCoy, Robert Schubert, Robert Dunay, Joe Wheeler

lumenHAUS: Uses and Benefits of ICT for Design-Build Educational Environments

Abstract: By many accounts, American classrooms are not using the most effective means to properly educate and train young graduates and professionals. Common goals involve educational achievement and market advantage for students, with a wide variety of proposed solutions. Among the many solutions, technology in the classroom environment has been touted as one route for translating academic goals to the market. Education in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is no different: a rise in industry and classroom technology, paired with enrollment, justifies the need to re-focus solutions from technology to provide for the academic and market needs in the built environment. The recent Virginia Tech 2009 Solar Decathlon Competition (VTSD) offered an ideal setting for better understanding effective uses of technology in the translation of these AEC goals. VTSD was a student-led, integrated classroom environment incorporating students of all disciplines in the design and construction of an energy-efficient home. Information and communication technologies (ICT) played a major role in the educational and competitive efforts, all of which could translate to market advantage. This paper aims to explore academic uses and benefits of ICT for increased market acceptance through: 1) presenting common goals to the classroom, design-build education and the 2009 Solar Decathlon competition, 2) presenting various forms of ICT used to accomplish these goals and 3) presenting preliminary results of a survey of market acceptance for incorporated technologies.

Keywords: IT Supported Architectural and Engineering Design, Communication and Collaboration Technologies, Model Based Management Tools and Systems, Building Information Modeling

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Full text: content.pdf (236,600 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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B.H. Goh

Progression in IT adoption and stage of IT maturity in the construction sector of Singapore

Abstract: The IT maturity model, based on Nolan’s Stages of Growth Model, is applied to analyse the characteristics of IT users, IT facilitators and IT providers in relation to their respective degrees of awareness, degrees of application and degrees of integration. The objective is to assess and draw useful conclusions about the progression in IT adoption by the construction sector in Singapore. At the same time, it can help to determine the stage of IT development for this sector. The data used for the analysis includes information obtained from an industry-wide questionnaire survey followed by informal discussions with industry players, as well as a review of the relevant publications. Evidence shows that there is an increasing trend of companies improving their efficiency and productivity through using IT. There is also an increasing trend of education institutions promoting IT usage through providing training. And, catering to this, there is an emergence of software development by IT vendors. Going beyond, it is clear that stakeholders need to focus their attention on achieving integration of technology, process and people as the next stage of development. It is recommended that appropriate strategies be put in place.

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Full text: content.pdf (28,476 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Bakis N, Sun M

Intelligent broker for collaborative search and retrieval of construction information on the WWW

Abstract: "CONTEXT In recent years, the construction industry began to use the World Wide Web (WWW) as an information dissemination vehicle. The amount of construction information available on the WWW is increasing exponentially, ranging from product data to technical publications, from building regulations to best practice guides. However, the task of finding the right information becomes more and more difficult. At present, users rely on two types of solutions to the information discovery and retrieval problem on the Internet, “yellow pages like information gateways” and “robot-based Internet search engines”. While acknowledging the success for both solutions so far, the authors will discuss their growing evident limitations in supporting construction specific information retrieval on the WWW. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The aim of this study is to develop an intelligent information broker for the construction information on the Internet, which will facilitate collaboration between users for the benefit of improved information search and retrieval on the WWW network. The objectives are: ·to examine the information needs of different types of users in the construction industry; ·to capture these information needs conceptually as user profiles and information context models; ·to incorporate construction domain knowledge into the information network; ·to improve speed and accuracy of users search for construction information by developing a information network that facilitates the sharing of search results and knowledge; ·to develop a hierarchical distributed client/server architecture to enable the most efficient service both Intranet and Internet users. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The intelligent information broker described in paper has a client/server architecture based on software agents technology. It has two distinct features: (1) supporting user collaboration; (2) applying construction domain and user profile knowledge to improve the information search. Collaborative Information Searching Collaborative searching or social filtering is often the most effective method of ranking Internet documents. The developed information broker enables users with the same interest to share the results of their search and their rating of each document’s quality and relevance. Construction knowledge and User Profile The information broker server is in essence a construction oriented WWW searching engine. What distinguishes it from other searching engines is its evolving knowledge base of construction specific keyword sets and construction user profiles. Using the knowledge base, the information broker server is able to answer intelligent queries other than simple keyword matching."

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Full text: content.pdf (197,260 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.054837) class.retrieve (0.047943) class.social (0.030880)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bjork B C

The impact of electronic document management on construction information management

Abstract: This paper deals with the introduction of electronic document management (EDM) technology in the construction industry, and our current research knowledge about this topic. EDM has the potential to enhance the information management in construction projects considerably, without radical changes to current practice. Over the past fifteen years this topic has been overshadowed by building product modelling in the construction IT research world, but at present EDM is quickly being introduced in practice, in particular in bigger projects. Often this is done in the form of third party ASP services available over the World Wide Web. In the paper a typology of research questions and methods is presented, which can be used to position the individual research efforts which are surveyed in the paper. Questions dealt with include: What features should EMD systems have? How much are they used? Are there benefits from use and how should these be measured? What are the barriers to wide-spread adoption? Which technical questions need to be solved? Is there scope for standardisation? How will the market for such systems evolve?

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Full text: content.pdf (84,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036219) class.environment (0.033025) class.impact (0.032159)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Björk B-C, Turk Z

A Survey on the Impact of the Internet on Scientific Publishing in Construction IT and Construction Management

Abstract: The World Wide Web provides the opportunity for a radically changed and much more efficient communication process for scientific results. A survey in the closely related domains of construction information technology and construction management was conducted in February 2000, aimed at measuring to what extent these opportunities are already changing the scientific information exchange and how researchers feel about the changes. The paper presents the results based on 236 replies to an extensive Web based questionnaire. 65% of the respondents stated their primary research interest as IT in A/E/C and 20% as construction management and economics. The questions dealt with how researchers find, access and read different sources; how much and what publications they read; how often and to which conferences they travel; how much they publish, and what are the criteria for where they eventually decide to publish. Some of the questions confronted traditional and electronic publishing with one final section dedicated to opinions about electronic publishing. According to the survey researchers already download half of the material that they read digitally from the Web. The most popular method for retrieving an interesting publication is downloading it for free from the author's or publisher's website. Researchers are not particularly willing to pay for electronic scientific publications. There is much support for a scenario of electronic journals available totally freely on the Web, where the costs could be covered by for instance professional societies or the publishing university. The shift that the Web is causing seems to be towards the "just in time" reading of literature. Also, frequent users of the Web rely less on scientific publications and tend to read fewer articles. If available with little effort, papers published in traditional journals are preferred; if not, the papers should be on the Web. In these circumstances, the role of paper-based journals published by established publishers is shifting from the core "information exchange" to the building of authors' prestige. The respondents feel they should build up their reputations by publishing in journals and relevant conferences, but then make their work freely available on the Web.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2000/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2000 (browse)
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C Yon Cho, Y Hyun Park, G Lee

Identifiyng a Subset of BPMN for IDM Development

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a subset of business process modeling notation (BPMN) to improve the information delivery manual (IDM) development process. The information delivery manual (IDM) (ISO/DIS 29481-1, 2008) currently recommends using BPMN for describing process maps (PM). The BPMN model is a generic graphical representation standard for specifying business processes targeted at a wide range of industry sectors. In its present form, it includes an unwieldy number of symbols and rules (currently over 160 notations) in order to cover a wide range of uses. Consequently, many process models use only a small number of these notations. This study collected and analyzed BPMN notations used in 54 processes in 14 existing PMs developed by various organizations. It was found that only 36 notations are used in IDM development. Based on these 36 notations, a subset of BPMN for IDM development is proposed.

Keywords: Information delivery manual, Korea construction process, Exchange requirement, Process map, BIM

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Full text: content.pdf (213,612 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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