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Ha_kan Norberg & Thomas Olofsson

A PROCESS MODEL FOR CONSTRUCTION SYNCHRONISATION USING TIME-SPACE PLANNING METHODS AND FIELD FORCE AUTOMATION

Abstract: This paper explores a proposed process model for construction synchronisation. The aim of the paper is to show the potential of working according to the Last Planner System of production and control by combining time-space planning methods and Field Force Automation. In addition, the paper aims to show the benefits of working with real time support regarding taking control actions in the schedule and to collect data for follow- up analysis. The paper first provides a background of the research and a description of the various methods and tools used in the process model. A process model is proposed based on the last planner and control system for the implementation of a new ICT tool with the purpose to enhance, planning and control in order to enhance construction synchronisation. It is concluded that site managers needs tools to change their view of planning from static view of the schedule which can be revised once or twice per project to the view that the schedule is a total dynamic instrument to be used to develop prognosis and measure for avoiding waste and delays in the realisation phase of the construction project. The paper is concluded with suggestions for how the method can be further developed and improved.

Keywords: Construction synchronisation, Last Planner, 4D modelling, location based scheduling, field force automation

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Full text: content.pdf (523,442 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Hartvig S, Ersen T

Teaching computing in civil engineering: knowledge systems.

Abstract: "After decades of research and development in ""advanced"" IT, the picture of IT usage in construction remains the same - industry in general is not taking proper advantage of commercially available IT-technologies, as for example knowledge systems. We and others [Raphael 99] think this is caused by the fact that technical universities do not include teaching in advanced computing for civil and building engineers, despite the outspoken need for it. At Department of Planning at the Technical University of Denmark, we have acknowledged this need, and we offer an intensive class in knowledge engineering. Experiences from that course have been presented in [Andersen98]. It is clear to us that this class is valuable, because it enables a fraction of the new generation of professional engineers to cope with 1) knowledge and problem solving and 2) more advanced use of IT. However, it is equally clear that we need to do more - that is: offer teaching in a broader field than just narrow scoped expert systems. We [Andersen98] have pointed out that the relatively narrow scope of the intensive class present a risk of giving the student a too narrow minded attitude to knowledge systems. We are in the process of renewing and possibly expanding our teaching in knowledge systems. To be able to move in the right direction a survey is about to be performed: we are in the process of tracking ""old"" students, now working in industry, in order to learn how our teaching have impacted their professional life and workplace. We seek empirical support for our idea that handling of ""knowledge"", ""problem solving"" and ""concepts"" are key skills for engineers rather than abilities in specific computer applications. The paper will present the results of our survey and considerations, and will include an outline of an improved teaching programme for knowledge systems in civil and building engineering. [Raphael99] Raphael B, Shea K, Smith I, A task and software independent CAE course, in proceedings AICIVIL-COMP99, civil-comp press 99. [Andersen98] Andersen T, Hartvig S, Teaching Knowledge Engineering: Experinces in: Artificial Intelligence in Structural Enginneering, Springer 99"

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Full text: content.pdf (315,577 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.056740) class.impact (0.029838) class.environment (0.027163)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Haugen T

Integrating documentation for building .operation and maintenance in planning and design

Abstract: A general platform for a lifelong database is fundamental for the integration of information between design and management. Documentation from design as part of a facilities management system is necessary to retain the technical and functional quality of a building through its lifetime and to reduce the lifecycle costs. The use of computers have given us the opportunity of reducing the gap between design and management, even if it so far has tended to reinforce rather to weaken the organizational fragmentation that already exists. This paper focus on 10 important aspects for the development of computer integrated systems: Define the need for information in different management organizations; Avoid unnecessary information; Design simple systems; Develop a general platform - a lifelong database; relate to common standards; Produce the necessary information for operation and maintenance in design and construction; The implementation of an automated system demands a working manual system; An accurate database; A logical way of updating the database information and Link data to graphics.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,426,901 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.056488) class.synthesis (0.008424) class.economic (0.007150)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Hazlehurst G, Pitt T, Buxton R

Implementation of single building modelling technologies into themanagement phase of the property cycle

Abstract: This paper brings together work carried out by Guy Hazlehurst, Stephen Drewer and RodenBuxton at the University of the West of England on the concept of the Single Building Model andresearch by Terry Pitt and George Griffith on the management of complex healthcare facilities,'Healthcare FM'. The central aim of the research has been to utilise advanced 3D, object modelsof complex buildings not only as repositories for 3D, 2D graphics, data and intelligence, but to actas 'information brokers'. The concept of the single building model has effectively evolved toprovide a spatial database that has the inherent potential to act as the spine of a 'heterogeneous'system. This spine links the sub-systems that enable complex processes throughout the life of thebuilding to be modelled.This paper will seek to address the issues of systems integration, through the creation andapplication of Single Building Modelling technologies, during the post occupancy stage of thebuilding process. Modelling complex buildings and estates at a time long after the facilities wereoriginally conceived, designed and built posits a set of unique issues that do not arguably arisewhen such models evolve through the incremental processes of inception, design and construction.It will be argued that the principal issues are those of data compatibility and the level of detailrequired within the 'ex-post' single building model to deliver optimum benefit to the owners andmanagers of complex buildings. The research issues identified by the production andimplementation of such a model within a Hospital's existing building management will bediscussed. Although the example cited in this paper is a healthcare building the points raisedwithin it arguably apply to any significant property or estate.

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Full text: content.pdf (155,600 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Heinisuo Markku, Jenu Markku

Knowledge based design tool of steel structures including economical and structural aspects

Abstract: The paper deals with a knowledge based expert system (KBES) developed for the design of structural steel joints. The KBES can be used for the selection of suitable joints taking into account the expert knowledge stored into the database. The expert knowledge is so far shallow and it contains force transmitting abilities, fabrication and erection cost differences of joints. The KBES is used also for the choosing of suitable values of joint parameters by taking into account both generic rules (appearing in the codes of practice) and specific rules of individual joints and the combinations of both of these rules. The KBES suggests also local analysis models of the joints. The KBES gives an estimation of cost of the whole skeleton by combining the product model (PM) of the material entities and the cost database. The product model for the analysis of the whole steel skeleton is also proposed by the KBES. The PMs are made following IS0 10303, so we are working in an open environment.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Helena Johnsson, Linus Malmgren, Stefan Persson

ICT support for industrial production of houses the Swedish case

Abstract: The Swedish construction sector is currently undergoing great changes. The large costs for labour have forced the construction companies to rationalise and minimise labour intense work operations. Therefore, the current trend in construction to adopt the principles of lean production and transform it into lean construction, suits the Swed-ish way of working and the entire Swedish construction sector has caught on. A growing market is the prefabrication of building elements that are transported to site and then erected. The development has been taken so far that modular houses i.e. vol-umes/rooms are prefabricated. Companies in the prefabrication industry within construction fall between two sectors; the construction industry and the manufacturing industry. In terms of IT support the contradiction between the two sectors become evident. Software developed for the construction sector seldom provide enough detailing to suffice as a basis for industrial production, while software supporting the manufacturing industry are incapable of delivering standard construction documenta-tion. The current study presents a multiple case study where six Swedish industrial manu-facturers of timber houses were studied. The process from tender acceptance to mod-ule delivery is described. Alongside, a survey of the building sys-tem revealed that much still needs to be done in terms of documenting a building system. The results show that the ques-tion of IT support is more a question of consequent information strategies than eloquent IT tools. The pressing need for a method for documenting building systems is stressed and different methods are discussed.

Keywords: timber houses, industrial construction, lean construction, timber buildings

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Full text: content.pdf (462,549 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Hirokane M, Furuta H, Nakai S, Mikumo Y

Rough-set-based diagnosis model of slope-failure danger level

Abstract: Slope-failure is caused by complex working of various factors such as geology, rainfall, etc. If the fuzzy theory is applied to all of these factors, results will often be of short reliability. In this paper, we present a method to acquire, removing inconsistencies, the minimum knowledge necessary to deduce reliable results from actual cases where engineers of long experience diagnosed the danger levels. Next comes a method of constructing a knowledge base for an expert system, such acquired knowledge used. Then, a method to check the accuracy and reliability of acquired knowledge and evaluate the knowledge base is described.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Howard R

Monitoring use of communications on a partneringproject

Abstract: The 'Process and product development in the building industry' (PPB) projectin Denmark has acted as a test bed for various types of innovation in buildingsocial housing since 1995. Four consortia developed methods of design andconstruction that were tested on a series of similar housing projects. Thedevelopment project was supported by the Ministries of Industry and Housing,who commissioned the ITbyg group to monitor use of information technology.Partnering between the designers and constructors, should have been verysuitable for electronic communication. DTU studied various media used duringboth design and construction stages. It carried out Social Network Analysis ofthe number of messages, and partners involved, in different methods of sharingdata. This is a case study of one consortium and describes its communicationsover a two-week period and their use to solve a design problem. It found thatelectronic communication was little used to solve the problem, but Email wasgenerally used and Project Webs were being tried. However even 5 years ofpartnering is too short for a project team to change its methods of working.

Keywords: Partnering, Communications, Project Web, Social Network Analysis, Housing

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Full text: content.pdf (313,284 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Howard R

IT directions - 20 years' experience and future activities for CIB W78

Abstract: This paper looks back 20 years to the first CIB W78 conference that was organised by the author. It builds upon the analysis of themes by Amor & Betts reported at the 2002 conference and includes some analysis of the papers published in the journals Automation in Construction and ITcon. Trends in topics presented at annual CIB W78 events are analysed and suggestions made for future conference themes and links with other Working Commissions and the needs of developing countries. The role suggested for this successful group is that it continues to help exchange of international experience and encourage collaboration between research and industry and with other groups in CIB.

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Full text: content.pdf (245,603 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Ito K, Kano Y

3-D graphical simulation for crane planning using object-orientedbuilding product model

Abstract: Temporary Facilities are the most expensive resources at a constructionsite. In particular, the selection, positioning, planning and operation of acrane for a construction site control influences the overall constructionplanning and selection of the combination of construction methods. InJapan, at most construction sites around or inside the large city, craneoperation is one of the big issues in determining the combination ofconstruction methods because of the site constraint restrictions.Therefore, the utilization of a crane directly influences theconstructability and productivity of its related construction operations. Itis also important for a construction planner, or construction manager, toconsider and to evaluate the construction work plans, and constructioncosts. This is so that they provide for the safety of the laborers, reducingconstruction costs, and maintaining the quality of the facilities. Duringthe crane planning, any possible lack of equipment power and/orresource bottlenecks, should be identified.On the other hand, an object-oriented product model is very powerful indescribing each building element as an object, including its attributes forthe crane simulation. Especially for the selection and positioning of thecrane for a construction operation, the loading ability of the crane orinterference between the elements and boom of the crane should beevaluated by using the location and attributes of building elements, suchas the weight of elements or materials of elements. Therefore, theauthors propose the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning,with an object-oriented building product model.This paper presents the development, present status and future directionsof the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning using theobject-oriented building product model. The work described in this paperis still in progress. The paper will conclude with a layout of future plansfor 3-D graphical simulation systems as the tool of virtual construction.

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Full text: content.pdf (211,278 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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