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C Bogen, M Rashid, E W East

A Framework for Building Information Fusion

Abstract: Data reported by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is critical for evaluating the as-operated performance of a facility. Typically these systems are designed to support specific control domains, but facility performance analysis requires the fusion of data across these domains. Since a facility may have several disparate, closed-loop SCADA systems, resolution of data interoperability issues (heterogeneities) is a prerequisite to cross-domain data fusion. There are no general methods for resolving these heterogeneities in the context of a nonproprietary core building information model (BIM) format. This article describes how these standard data models are applied to a general framework for the integration of building information models and building sensor telemetry. Given the number of very large corporations, each with its own research agendas and proprietary products, and the large number of installed buildings, each with its own control systems, yet another control scheme or technology will not make an impact on improving this market. The authors propose solutions to these underlying data heterogeneities by adopting existing data standards and introducing new data schemas (only when necessary) based on consensus between industry, government, and academic stakeholders. The Industry Foundation Class (IFC) 2X4 controls domain is the foundation of the authors’ decomposition of SCADA systems as components, assemblies, and connections that relate to other objects in the facility. The Open Building Information eXchange (oBIX) provides the basis for the authors’ representation of raw telemetry streams that map to the underlying IFC model. The system concept described in this article is part of an effort that is expected to produce an Industry Foundation Class Model View Definition (MVD) for building SCADA systems, product type templates for building SCADA products, the architectural design of an integration platform, and the specification of common predictive and analytical functions for deriving usable intelligence from the integration framework.

Keywords: Smart Buildings, Data Fusion, Building Controls and Automation, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes IFC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Costa F

The S:ITEC model: An integrated system of treatment of data and knowledge in construction

Abstract: Recently, in the field of Computer Aided Design (CAD), notable efforts have been made with theoretical results largely unproven due mainly to the difficulties of the large scale production required. On the other hand, other applications of an excessively practical nature have been developed which, however, present a high degree of difficulty in bringing about their integration. In the first case we would include, for example, representational Models and Classification Systems andin the second case the various CAD systems as well as the partial integration work carried out although often at a high level of specialization. This work means that, although each time we get nearer to reaching the goal where all these efforts would coincide, no concrete systemadaptable to the majority of models proposed has really yet been put forward or used for the various applications developed. A system whichwould meet these needs must do so in a single, integral manner (whicheven could be standardized in the most universal way possible) so that finally-the user could at any moment control in real time each and every one of the various decisions which must be taken along the difficult design path, understood as the process of conception. In order to achieve these objectives, what becomes fundamental is the adequate treatment of the various methods and elements on which we depend, in order to carry out our task so that, in some way or other, we can simplifyand reduce them to two single elements: Data and Knowledge. While it is certain that in the first case there is almost complete coincidenceamong most of the existing proposals in various parts of the world, in the second case there exists a wide range of approaches as well as arelative lack of concretion. The SITEC model (Integrated System for Treatment of Construction Elements), a research project being developedby the Catalan Institute of Construction Technology, is shown to be capable of providing the necessary integrat

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Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.028882) class.impact (0.010540) class.analysis (0.008722)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Costin, A., Sedehi, A., Williams, M., Li, L., Bailey, K., and Teizer, J.

Leveraging Passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology in High-Rise Renovation Projects

Abstract: The hypothesis is that leveraging automated data collection technology for site status analysis would play a more significant role in advancing decision making in construction projects if applied to traditional labor intensive management work tasks such as manual data record keeping, progress tracking measurements, and reporting of daily work tasks and process flows; and further, if applied in distributing information back to decision makers including the field management and workforce level. This paper will demonstrate results to a one year long case study on the design, development, and furthermore and mainly, the effective and very affordable implementation of a state-of-the-art wireless passive RFID based technology system that collects and distributes information from and to decision makers. The developed technology was tested for several consecutive months on more than 50 construction workers, material carts, personnel and material lifts, and hundreds of construction material items that were critical in a high-rise building renovation project. Recent research on material tracking, has demonstrated that the implementation of material tracking technology is feasible. Studies have yet to demonstrate whether the same or other technology can be used on other resource types, including workers, and furthermore in advancing technology that works bi-directional: (1) collect and analyze data, and (2) return feedback or other information back to the decision makers. Despite a rigorous cost-benefit, hardware reliability and safety tests, implementation of technology in field operations is often performed on an as-needs basis. Project based case studies are effective research tools to measure the benefits and barriers that technology comes with. This paper defines key metrics to measure success in the phases of data collection, the signal and data processing, and in the use of newly generated or already available information for advanced decision making based on passive RFID technology.

Keywords: RFID; productivity; renovation project; workforce, material, and workforce tracking; automation

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Crook D, Rooke J, Seymour D

Research techniques in construction information technology

Abstract: An important strategic issue in the use of IT by construction organisations is its use as an enabling technology for re-engineering the construction process. An examination of research reveals a tendency in IT research to adopt a mechanical systems view of an organisation’s activities: the organisation is treated as a complex of ‘black box’ processes or sub-systems linked by information flows. It is suggested that although this may be necessary for the production of a computer model, a detailed study of the empirical world, which the model is intended to represent, is a prior requisite if the system designed is to meet its purposes.We argue that the current assumptions made in construction IT research characterise a dominant ‘rationalist’ research paradigm. The main feature of this paradigm is belief in the objective reality of information or data: this has the effect of excluding from consideration the meaning or semantic content of information. A consequence is that the processes which are the interpretive context for information and data are ignored as matters for study. Information requirements within the system are treated as unproblematic, and do not seem to be adequately addressed by researchers within this paradigm.We suggest that research where an insufficient examination of the empirical world is undertaken misrepresents the nature of the processes under study. It also highlights the limitations of a positivistic approach to research. We note the emergence of ‘soft systems methodologies’ as an attempt to address these issues, and a call within the construction IT research community to recognise their importance, albeit one which may as yet have gone unheeded.In order to develop a more coherent research strategy for construction IT, we present an alternative, interpretive research paradigm which seeks to provide an appropriate footing on which to model socio-technical phenomena. We introduce the concept of participant observation-supported software development, which may help to remedy some of the problems identified.

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Full text: content.pdf (57,809 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.022904) class.strategies (0.019865) class.communication (0.008767)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Dijkstra J, Timmermans H, B de Vries

VR based simulation of user behaviour within the built environment to support the early stages of building design

Abstract: Architects are often faced with the problem to assess how their design decisions will affect the behaviour of individuals. Various performance indicators are related to the behaviour of individuals in particular environments. One approach to deal with this problem is to develop a system that relates user behaviour to design parameters. The paper discusses the framework of a multi-agent system approach for investigating visualized simulated pedestrian activity and behaviour within a building. The approach will lead to a system that may serve as a toolkit in the design process for a better understanding what the design look like, and perhaps more importantly have users will behave in that particular environment. Agent technology is derived from DAI which is also applied in the construction industry (Onuegbu O. Ugwu e.a., The application of DAI in the construction industry, CIT2000, pp. 959-970). The concept of this system is based on micro-simulation of pedestrian flows and multi-agent technology. In this context, pedestrians are people navigating within the built environment. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D environment, in which space is represented as a network which is a lattice of cells with local states, subject to a uniform set of rules, which drives the behaviour of the system. Agents represent pedestrians with their own behaviour, moving over the network. The 3D environment is a virtual environment of the design of a new building or the revitalization of an existing building. Thus, a virtual building environment with virtual pedestrians will be constructed using multi-agent simulation. In this particular environment, a set of instances corresponding to the elements of multi-agent simulations is designed. We distinguish user-agents that represent pedestrians in the simulation. We call the individual that is supposed to walk through the environment a subject-agent and all other simulated pedestrians in the system actor-agents. Thus, subject-agent and actor-agents are user-agents that navigate in this virtual environment, each with their own behaviour, beliefs and intentions. With the simulation system, we will get more insight into the pedestrian activity behaviour and thus in the pedestrian flows in buildings, not yet existing. This will be of great importance in the assessment of design performance. For a designer or researcher, this system approach results in a decision support tool for the early stages in the design process of the construction of a building.

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Full text: content.pdf (484,430 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.029736) class.analysis (0.014083) class.impact (0.008671)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Dimitra Chondrogianni, Christos Gioldasis and Yorgos Stephanedes

Low-Cost Fleet Management Solutions in the Framework of Emerging Markets

Abstract: Implementation of ITS solutions in the emerging market of Egypt is at an early stage, yet has made significant progress. In the framework of PHAROS project, low-cost smart solutions have been developed for fleet managers to facilitate efficient route choices and eco-driving that minimize fuel consumption and carbon emissions. These solutions were integrated in an existing fleet management system. This paper presents the theoretical and practical formulation of the rescheduling component added to the already existing fleet management system. The rescheduling component is based on the development of an eco-path that considers the "cost" between two consecutive nodes. By the term "cost", more parameters such as path length, travel time, operating costs, energy consumption required for each route, are taken into account. Based on the above decision-routing parameters, through the use of a routing algorithm, the optimal path between the origin and the destination node is proposed.

Keywords: ITS, Fleet Management, Rescheduling, Emerging Markets

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0180

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Dossick, Carrie Sturts; Rojas, Eddy; Locsin, Susan; and Lee, Namhun

Defining Construction Management Events in Situational Simulations

Abstract: The challenge and promise of educational computer simulations are to provide user experiences that allow for immersion into a dynamic system in which users discover the ramifications of their decisions in a complex environment. Researchers at the University of Washington, in collaboration with Michigan Technological University, are developing situational simulations to meet the needs of construction management education. The simulation environment, known as the Virtual Coach, helps users to further develop their decision-making skills in a problem-based learning setting whereby they investigate, integrate and apply concepts in a participatory, contextually rich, educational, yet fun video game-like virtual environment. This paper explores the development of this contextually rich and general-purpose environment and the user’s experience as they progress from Project Awareness to Project Monitoring and into Project Management. In the Virtual Coach, users view project information in both Project Awareness and Project Monitoring. As the project and Simulation Events unfold, the user interacts with the simulation, making decisions that impact the project outcome. A Simulation Event includes the user’s experience, variables altered by the event, and variables changed by the user. This paper defines the concept of Simulation Events within the context of the Virtual Coach, explains how the users become aware of an Event and how Events are triggered in the simulation, describes how users engage with the simulation (i.e., what variables are in play), and identifies types and formats of information available to a simulation developer to shape the learning outcomes.

Keywords: Simulation models; Construction management; Engineering education; Computer aided instruction

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Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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Durmisevic S, Ciftcioglu O, Sariyildiz S

An application of neural network in post-occupancy evaluation of underground stations

Abstract: "The architectural and construction design deals very often with the word quality. This term is so vague and broad that the main difficulty arises if one needs to determine its aspects. It is rather simple to deal with the quantifiable building standards. The problem is how to demystify and thereafter integrate this fuzzy concept of quality into design. As an example we will use underground stations as a design problem area for two reasons. First of all, these spaces are rather young structures that have a high potential in the future. The efficiency of underground transport and importance of multiple space usage in the densely built urban areas are only some benefits that these spaces can offer. But yet many realized underground projects were not satisfactory to the users. Second reason lies in a fact that these spaces have their own limitations. Some qualities that are so obvious for the aboveground buildings, such as daylight or view, are rather difficult to obtain in underground spaces. Therefore, in these spaces the word quality is even more sensitive. But the literature that the architects can consult regarding these problems is rather scattered and difficult to obtain. One of the reasons is a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories followed by the research results and applied techniques. In this paper we used the AI technique, a Neural Network, for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to develop a Support Model that will enable quality measurement of underground spaces in a systematic way. In order to avoid the ad-hoc design solutions for underground spaces, there is a need for systematic approach to their design. In such way the intuitive approach to problem solving can be minimized. This paper deals with following topics: 1. aspects that determine the quality of space 2. classification of psychological and spatial aspects 3. development of conceptual framework 4. application of Neural Network for post-occupancy evaluation 5. results and endeavor design guidelines First three topics will deal with criteria definition, which were necessary for design of the experimental part of a research. The experimental research, which was carried out at the site of one underground station, provided the necessary data. The main emphasis of the paper will be on Neural Network application (topic 4), which will be used to treat the data gathered on underground station. The main objective is to verify the consistency of the outcomes against the predefined criteria."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,096,055 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.050429) class.impact (0.013741) class.social (0.008794)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Edwin Dado, Reza Beheshti, Sander van Nederveen

IT education and utilization within the upcoming shared master of science in construction management and engineering in the Netherlands

Abstract: In March 2004, the Task Force Sector Plan presented their final report to the State Secretary of Educa-tion, Culture and Science. In this report, the three universities of technology (3TU) proposed how they aim to create a single federation of Dutch universities of technology by combining their education and research programmes in order to enhance knowledge valorisation. In addition, five shared Master of Science (MSc.) programmes - not yet offered in The Netherlands but considered to be essential for the Dutch knowledge economy - were proposed, including the MSc. Construction Management and Engineering (CME) programme. The MSc. CME programme, realized at the three 3TU locations, consists of two blocks: (1) a general block and (2) a specialization block. The general block covers the topics that provide a sound basis for further specialization at one of the three locations of the 3TU. Within the general block – but moreover in the specialization block offered in Delft – contains a large amount of IT education and utilization. This paper will discuss the overall programme of MSc. CME programme and the development process of the MSc. CME specialization in Delft, with a special emphasis on the IT related subjects.

Keywords: master programme, construction management, IT, education

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Elham Delzendeh and Song Wu

The Influence of Space Layout Design on OccupantÕs Energy Behaviour

Abstract: In the past 15 years, the calculation of energy consumption in buildings has become more and more critical due to growing scientific and political concerns to respond to the challenges of global warming and climate change. The estimation of energy demand in buildings is now often a required process during the design stages. Yet, there is a considerable discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption in buildings due to occupantsÕ energy consumption activities. OccupantsÕ presence and their interactions with building systems play a significant role in buildingÕs energy consumption; however, it has been overlooked in building energy predictions. Different studies have been performed with the aim to better understand the parameters affecting occupantÕs energy behaviour with special focus on climatic, economics, regulations and social/personal aspects. Interior design of the space, too, has various impacts on behaviours of occupants and their interactions with building systems which affects the energy consumption of buildings. Space layout is a feature within interior design of space which influences occupantsÕ movement and choices of intentional behaviours. This paper highlights a gap in the knowledge by introducing Òspace layoutÓ features as an influential factor on occupantÕs energy behaviours and propose an analytical method to study the impact of the space layout on occupantsÕ energy behaviours. Understanding the impact will help designers influence the sustainable behaviour through the design of interior spaces.

Keywords: Space Layout Design, Energy Consumption, OccupantÕs Behaviour

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0235

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