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Joao P. Carneiro and Burcin Becerik-Gerber

Impact of Immersive and Interactive Information Visualization on OccupantÕs Lighting Choices

Abstract: Feedback systems often use Information Visualization (InfoVis) to inform occupants about the impact of their choices on energy consumption, aiming at reducing occupant behaviour related waste in buildings. In this pilot study, we use InfoVis as a tool to influence occupantsÕ opinions about a roomÕs lighting quality instead of their energy consumption. Lighting significantly affects occupantsÕ mood, productivity, and wellbeing. We utilize InfoVis to present the light quality data throughout a day via an animated daylight cycle, as well as light levels and light distributions through static and animated heat maps to enable occupants to make more informed decisions related to lighting. InfoVis is presented within the spatial context by overlaying visualizations on the room itself, on its floor and the desk surface, using an immersive virtual environment. The results show that the participants changed their choices once provided with more information related to the quality and amount of lighting in the room. Specifically, the participants changed their choices significantly more when the illuminance levels and distribution over time (dynamic heat maps) were presented. The findings of this research can inform the development of better visualization techniques that could increase occupant awareness about environmental conditions in buildings.

Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environment, Immersive Interactive Visualization, Informed Decision, Lighting Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0210

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Juergen Melzner, Jochen Hanff and Jochen Teizer

Pattern-Based Generation of 4D-Schedules for Robust Construction Management

Abstract: The creation of construction schedules is a time-consuming manual process. While project planning depends on many tasks and parameters, the quality of schedules highly relates on the engineers' experience and the access to reliable, historical project data. While knowledge applied from software can assist an engineer, the main shortcoming of current tools is the separation in generating building information and construction process models. Proposed is a knowledge-based system that automatically generates 4D-schedules based on building information models. Patterns are used to generate a process model for repetitive work flows, such as placing formwork, reinforcing, and concreting. Pattern-enriched attributes, i.e. the topology of the building structure, are automatically applied to objects in the model. Resource allocation, such as varying the performance factors or the amount of work crews, becomes possible. Such analysis can still be evaluated and exported in the format of traditional Gantt-diagrams or color-coded 4D-schedules and the construction process model can be used for detailed scheduling, construction time control, and time-based quantity evaluations. The developed approach was validated for the concreting work of a 12-story tall office building under construction. Preliminary results indicate gains in accuracy and efficiency of the developed approach compared to the traditional scheduling process.

Keywords: 4D, Construction Schedules, Building Information Modelling (BIM), Simulation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0223

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K Ercoskun & A Dikbas

Enabling Relationship Management: Agent Technology for Facility Management Integration

Abstract: Integration is a common effort in every industry. On the operational level, establishing effective communication and collaboration between business actors is a vital contemporary need for ""Total Quality"". Business patterns in construction industry depend on ""Projects"". Despite the efforts of sharing knowledge in order to establish and discern excellence in construction, every project is naturally a closed system hiding great amount of ""Information"" from the participants of ""other"" projects. A reasonable amount of this hidden information may be ""discovered"" from post-construction phases of a project's lifetime. Providing a strong relationship mechanism between different project actors is possible through facility management integration. This paper presents basic concepts of a ""Customer service call tracking system for facility management"" which by design puts the customer at the center of post-construction processes and enables various actors of construction industry to serve in collaboration within a platform providing effective communication and collaboration. The framework proposed within this research consists of various process models which are designed to resolve Business to Business (B2B), Business to Enterprise (B2E) and Business to Customer (B2C) relationship types. The Meta system in which the common standards and protocols of communication defined is implemented as a web based project model and agent technology is used to provide a loosely coupled integration mechanism. The core of the model is named as CC-Agent (Customer to Construction Agent) and is implemented as a series of web services.""

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Kaka A P

A intelligent knowledge-based system for capturing projects’ performance and initiating tendering strategies

Abstract: "The paper will describe a knowledge-based system developed to capture, process and analyse records of past performance in ordered to help contractors to initiate future strategies and actions. A detailed study of the of a major contractor’s Management Information Systems showed, inter alia, that the “Cost Value Reconciliation” forms (CVR’s), produced on a monthly basis by the contractor’s Surveyor, held a large amount of data unused by the contractors except for the purpose of performance control. Examination of the data revealed that if processed and stored in a central database, it could provide invaluable source of information to contractors for analysing performance and initiating strategies both on the project level and the company level. A subsequent survey of fifteen other contractors revealed that substantially identical CVR procedures were in universal use. It was therefore decided, in order to facilitate the adoption of the proposed system by contractors, to use a CVR format as a data capture facility for the system. Actual CVR sheets used by different contractors were studied, The type of records used in these sheets were examined in terms of their usefulness to management in terms of measuring progress and initiating future actions other than cost control. Further variables that are not currently in use in CVR sheets were introduced. A mathematical model was developed to process these monthly records into useful information subsequently called performance variables (i.e. variables used to measure the contractor’s performance with respect to the project). Finally, further variables were introduces to the system in order to facilitate the sharing of information between different projects. These variables were called Contract Classification Variables (i.e. variables used to describe the project) and contract performance variables) and included nine criteria by which a contract is defined or grouped (e.g. method of tendering, method of procurement etc.). These criteria were identified by contractors as the most important factors influencing contracts’ characteristics and performance. The Contract Performance Variables are the information that can be extracted from the CVR sheets and used to form new strategies (e.g. rate of mark-up on different projects, payment delays etc.). The model was developed in such a way that when a contract is started, the contractor enters the classification and the performance variables in the Individual Project Module. As the contract progresses and actual data become available, the contractor starts to fill the CVR sheets on a monthly basis. When the contract is completed, a the model process the CVR sheets and as a result summarise the performance of the project in terms of the performance variables and the data (including contract classification variables) are sent to the central Database. When a new contract is considered, the contractor defines the project in terms of its classification variables. The model queries the Database for the characteristics of past projects that match the same classification. Once the data is retrieved and processed a set of contract performance variables is predicted for that particular contract. The above method will work as long as adequate similar past projects are found and retrieved from the Database. However, finding adequate data is not always possible, particularly in the early years of applying the proposed model. Also, certain classification variables are not finite in terms of the options available (such as the client for the contract). An Intelligent Data Retrieval system has therefore been developed to overcome this problem. This paper will also explain this system and how the knowledge behind it was elicited."

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.022609) class.processing (0.020626) class.analysis (0.019940)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Kiroff L, Ostrowski P

It and E-architecture – a technological breakthrough, a techno knowledge race or a new paradigm in business?

Abstract: The impact of Information Technology on the growth of the knowledge society is profound. In an era when human intellectual creativity is highly valued, IT is a powerful tool enabling the analysis and development of ideas and concepts. Regarding IT as a means to automate business tasks aiming at some labour savings would be an extremely simplistic approach to a more complex concept. Designing systems that augment user capabilities, encourage further exploration and foster creativity will enable users to do what they have not been able to do before. Business environments where collaborative work relationships flourish become highly successful in the intensely competitive global marketplace. The synergy between IT and teams working together to accomplish mutual goals becomes the key to organisational performance. The AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry in particular is undergoing dramatic changes due to the pervasive use of networked computers and multimedia equipment. The advent of the first PCs in the architectural profession in the early 1980s gradually started adding a new element of complexity to the architect’s job. The essence of the architectural work is the teamwork environment and IT is able to facilitate the design process and make project collaborations effective. Our research focuses on IT and its impact on architectural team environments. Recent emerging trends that will be analysed include architecture firms’ collaborations on national and international projects (firms experts in particular building types associate with local or regional firms called “architect of record” commissioned for the contract documentation and the contract administration stages of the project). The Royal Sun Alliance Building, Metropolis Apartments, Botany Downs Shopping Centre, DFS Galleria (all in Auckland) are some NZ examples of international collaborations with the design coming from the USA and Australia and Auckland firms commissioned as “architect of record”. Such trends necessitate the use of new technologies like advanced digital communications and hence the unprecedented boom of project extranets, or project WEB sites, and the emergence of the WEB-based architecture. Highly sophisticated architectural environments are built around Intranets, Extranets, the Internet and Video Conferencing systems. This enables the integration of architectural design, business management and team collaborations through computer technology. As a consequence, traditional roles and responsibilities in an office environment will change dramatically with fewer lower level routine tasks being available. Continually updating skills through on-going education becomes a lifetime commitment for the highly qualified industry professionals and for the company as a whole. A large number of computer software applications become indispensable for the highly efficient everyday functioning of an office. Some of the most significant buildings of the 1990s like F. Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain and S. Calatrava’s Extension for the Milwaukees’s Art Museum, Wisconsin, USA couldn’t have been made without CAD. Another interesting trend is the use of IT to define a building through its entire life cycle in a more comprehensive way. This covers not only the traditional design and construction phases of a project but also automated facilities management and even the building’s eventual demolition. Our research methodology encompasses an array of primary and secondary sources of information – literature review, international case studies and projects both pre and post IT revolution, interviews with experienced industry professionals, hands-on experience demonstrating WEB based concepts in practice and individual professional expertise. Research Outcomes and Conclusions: · Although technology has given us numerous new tools to be more productive and innovative creatively, the amount of quality architecture being designed may not necessarily increase. · It is academia that drives innovative uses of technology not industry. Academia has more time and resources to experiment and is not at the mercy of the vendors’ vision or how technology can or should be used. · Computing is in a never-ending flux. This change, for better or worse dynamically drives the way we do business. The entire industry must seek out these changes, create them, challenge them, foster, adopt or discard them to suit. · As object oriented CAD becomes more pervasive, more value will be added to the construction documentation. This value-add needs to be recognised and exploited. · As technology pervades, the design process, regardless, remains relatively the same. · Hierarchical business models and decision-making processes are no longer the norm. This fosters an atmosphere of collaboration and employee empowerment. · Talent is talent. Technology is no substitute for it.

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Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.044696) class.collaboration (0.038235) class.environment (0.034749)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Kjell Svensson Magnus Hunhammar, Zabielski L

Are scanned drawings sufficient for facility management work?

Abstract: In the construction industry today we see that the focus has changed from design and construction to facility management. To meet rising demands on efficiency and service in facility management, together with a larger and more complicated amount of information, there is a need for using information technology, Drawings are traditionally the most important source of information and this will probably remain so in the future. Almost all drawings are today kept as paper documents or as micro-films. The first step towards a computerised operation is to transform these drawings into a digital format. This paper describes the numbers and various types of drawings involved in facility management and in what way they are used. The hypothesis “there is no need to vectorise huge volumes of old drawings - it is enough to scan them ‘ is tested through a prototype system. This prototype seems to handle and use the graphical information in ways that are suitable for facility management. In the prototype system, drawings are linked together and combined with alpha- numerical documents and database facts in accordance with a building product model structure. The recent progress of scanning techniques, including efficient compression of raster files and the raster-vector overlay technique for CAD and database applications, makes scanning a satisfactory way of digitising old drawings. A desirable development of the scanning technique would be automatic or semi- automatic recognition of building products in drawings of raster format. This will facilitate the use of building product-structured information that is created in the construction process. And this will further integrate design and construction with facility management.

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Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.016882) class.store (0.014801) class.economic (0.009941)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


L McGibbney, B Kumar

THE WOMBRA PROJECT: A WEB-BASED ONTOLOGY-ENHANCED MULTI-PURPOSE BUILDING-REGULATION RETRIEVAL APPLICATION FOR SCOTTISH TECHNICAL STANDARDS

Abstract: An increasing amount of professional work within the domain of sustainable design and construction is becoming dependent on retrieving regulatory and advisory information over the web quickly. A common recognition that advanced search and retrieval technologies enable enormous amounts of information to be accessed has emerged. However, as a result designers and builders are finding it increasingly difficult to identify this information and assimilate them in their activities. Commercial search engines provide a generic and inaccurate method of retrieving relevant information for domain-specific needs in a focussed manner. Therefore, there is a need for developing intelligent domain-specific search and retrieval technologies under a structured information management framework. This paper presents Wombra: a web-based information search and retrieval application which employs domain specific ontology to identify (in particular) relevant energy performance building regulations. The framework builds on our previously established model, incorporating an HTTP SPARQL server, which supports the SPARQL RDF query language allowing additional truths to be inferred from our ontologies. Firstly we introduce the design and development of the customised, domain specific web search platform. Related research in this field accompanies this introduction. A theoretical model justifies the choice of technologies used and the basic construction of the search application itself. Further, we provide the reasoning behind our requirement to establish an ontology library with specific application to Scottish Technical Standards. We conclude this paper with various observations relating to on-going experiments and a discussion on future research areas. The Wombra project is being developed in collaboration with a Scottish City Council’s building control department who are actively validating the value of our approach in their daily activity of checking and approving designs for construction.

Keywords: Search and Information Retrieval, Ontology, Construction, Building Regulations, Scotland

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Lee C-H,Tsai M-H,Kang S-C

Vao checker: accessibility study for pipeline maintenance

Abstract: Pipeline maintenance is becoming an important issue in modern construction. An understanding of accessibility considerations in terms of operation and maintenance is essential for pipeline planning and management. Previous studies have highlighted the complexity of multi-pipes and the importance of visualization, but few have proposed a way to consider accessibility problems during operation and maintenance. Therefore, this study develops a systematic method to evaluate accessibility with respect to pipeline maintenance. We first divided pipeline accessibility into three categories: (1) visual accessibility—a pipeline visible to the inspectors, (2) approachable accessibility—a pipeline that is reachable, and (3) operational accessibility—a pipeline that can be operated by the inspectors. Therefore, we visually represent the intersection and union of these three levels to illustrate the varying accessibility of pipe elements. We then developed a user interface tool, VAO Checker, in which V, A and O stand for visual, approachable and operational, to display visual information about pipeline accessibility. Through instantaneous analysis, the system visualizes the accessibility of the pipelines. A usability consultation with experts will be conducted to validate the system’s effectiveness. The results of the usability analysis show pipeline designers can benefit by using this tool to sketch a suitable traffic flow for engineers to investigate. Furthermore, the substantial amount of information saved in the layout database could be referenced for future optimization.

Keywords: Building Information Model (BIM),Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing (MEP),Pipeline Maintenance,Pipeline Accessibility,Information Visualization

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Lee, Sanghoon; Turkaslan-Bulbul, Muhsine Tanyel; and Akin, Omer

The Development of an Augmented Reality-Based Data Visualization System for Commissioning of Air Handling Units

Abstract: This paper discusses the development of an Augmented Reality-based data visualization system that supports commissioning HVAC systems during construction, occupancy, and operations phases. Commissioning is a process that generates a significant amount of data. Therefore a Building Commissioning data model has been developed to effectively manage such data and facilitate the computational support for commissioning work. One of the challenges of this model-based approach has been to reduce the inefficiency caused by the disparate and multiple attributes of the Building Commissioning data. In order to meet this challenge, we aim to develop an Augmented Reality-based data visualization interface which can automatically detects a piece of equipment and visualizes all necessary data relevant to the particular equipment for the commissioning procedures. This paper focuses on the functional requirements and system architecture needed to design such an interface.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Data Visualization, Building Commissioning Data Model, Air Handling Unit, and

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Leiringer R T

Modelling the complexity of modern construction projects

Abstract: "The search for significant cost savings and quality improvements on construction projects is a routine activity and one where there is plenty of theory, but few results capable of being reproduced elsewhere. One reason is that the organisational infrastructure of a project is not always properly understood and defined, meaning that novel ways of bringing about such savings and improvements can be frustrated by invalid or erroneous assumptions. A case study of a large housing project, as part of a top level investigation by a government department, has shown how even domestic scale construction is not without problems in understanding the complexity of the process. The investigation is documented as a set of computer-based process models for the entire project, which have then been used to pinpoint failures in communication and information management. Of particular interest are the early, pre-design stages (briefing) and the supply chain covering the off-site design, fabrication and assembly of components. The findings show that large parts of the process are not adequately defined. The parties have difficulty in agreeing upon the amount and specifics of the activities that have and are taking place, as well as the resources and information that are necessary for the project’s successful completion. Conclusions are drawn that outline the need for clear and transparent guidelines and procedures."

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Full text: content.pdf (222,193 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.044918) class.processing (0.016621) class.impact (0.012253)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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