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S Yamaki, N Yabuki

Application of the Bid Amount Model to Cost Estimation Systems for Public Works

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Schevers H, Tolman F

Creating a virtual project environment for the first building life cycle stages with cost and value evaluations

Abstract: The paper discusses the early results of Virtual Project Environment [VPE] implementation that uses Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The VPE is a computer environment that provides actors with the ability to simulate the project in the early design process. The system gives actors the opportunity to create and evaluate a number of alternative solutions. In the current implementation, the system is filled with project templates and knowledge about office buildings. Functional requirements, resources like i.e. available money, location and design solutions can be put as project data in the system. By applying knowledge rules, case rules and default values, the system will supplement this project information and generate a more detailed alternative. This means that KT is used to detail the requirements and solutions. This process assures the availability of just enough project and product information to conduct performance evaluations. These evaluations can be feasibility studies on relevant aspects like energy consumption, durability and costs. These studies give actors in this early phase a better view on the project. Working with such a system, actors can put in their design decisions and see what kind of result it has on the total project. For example the client as actor can change his demands. The VPE uses KT to adjust the design automatically. The actor can directly see what the consequences are of his change. The basis for the VPE is a product model. Modeling the early phases means among others, that the product model must capture many different levels of detail. For Example when a client wants to have new office accommodation, initial requirements can be the amount of people it has to house. KT can be used to estimate the total size of the accommodation. Having an initial idea of the shape estimation can be made of the size. In a later project phase the needed space is requirement more explicitly. The design is at that phase also more detailed. In the early design, a building must be modeled using non-detailed information. In the early design, these rough descriptions are worked out to more detailed descriptions. The product model, supporting this process, must also support the detailing process. This means different levels of detail must be supported for every product model object. For example, in the beginning of the process, a building will be described using only a primitive shape (box, cylinder, etc) and some initial properties (amount of storeys, main function, etc). Later in the process the building will be modeled with more detail. The shape is refined, the interior of the building is more detailed, etc (see figure 1). The paper discusses how this project data can be captured with PDT. Furthermore the paper discusses how this product model can interact with knowledge.

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Full text: content.pdf (245,354 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.022512) class.social (0.018639) class.represent (0.013888)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Scott D, Jianli H

A knowledge-base system for joint-venture projects in china

Abstract: Ever since China has implemented an open-door policy over the last two decades, China has been enjoying a fast economic growth. The growth is accompanied by an increasing amount of construction projects and an increasing number of foreign investors have been attracted to invest in China. Although joint venture projects are widely used in many countries, their successful use is relatively rare in 'the construction industry of China. There are aspects of the implementation of construction joint venture projects which are unique to the Chinese situation. This paper focuses on the present state of the Chinese construction industry, especially problems encountered during the development and running of construction joint venture projects. It analyses the reasons for these problems and tries to suggest means to accelerate the operation of the joint-venture projects in overcoming the difficulties. It will also identify how a knowledge-base system can assist joint venture projects in china successfully.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,199,762 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.013825) class.social (0.006540) class.bestPractise (0.005543)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Sulaiman M J, Ng Kok Weng, Cher Dong Theng, Berdu Z

Intelligent CAD checker for building plan approval

Abstract: In construction industry, architects need to have a deep knowledge of the uniform building by law and the local council requirements before designing a building or a house. The process of applying his or her knowledge in terms of building by law interpretation is critical during the design stage. Due to enormous amount of bylaws involved, architects may design with some non-compliance to the by-laws. This mistake will be costly especially if it causes the building plan to be rejected by the municipal council or the fire department. The mistake will probably cause a significant delay in the completion of project thus leading to penalty and other costs. Viewing from the point of the approval authority, the personnel involved in approving building plans is also prone to make mistake in approving building plans that have non-compliance to the by-laws. Such mistake may cause great harm to occupants of the building and the responsible authority may be accountable for any mishap caused by the non-compliance. Hence the proposed system discussed in this paper intends to eliminate any errors in interpreting as well as checking for bylaws non-compliance directly from a CAD file submitted by an architect. This system directly reads in the building design CAD file before checking it's attributes and specifications against the building by-laws and will report any non-compliance to the user.

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Full text: content.pdf (119,236 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.077622) class.social (0.013925) class.strategies (0.007529)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Sulaiman M J

Integrating virtual reality with CAD and project planning system

Abstract: The main issues that significantly contribute to problems and delays on construction sites are changing client's view, incomplete design information, and poor site monitoring and control. Although experienced designers and construction managers control or minimise such problems during the design stage, the complexity and amount of the information in construction project make such a task very difficult to accomplish effectively. This paper presents a conceptual model for an integrated system which aims at presenting construction activities in 3D using virtual reality. Firstly, the technology enables construction managers to walk-through the proposed building perhaps at different time intervals-giving a vivid appreciation of the whole situation. Secondly, its enables the users to interrogate the building elements to present its details progress thus giving total conceptual of the project. Finally the system enable virtual models to be transmitted over the Internet and thus facilitates collaborative global design and construction.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,322,739 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.032924) class.represent (0.012068) class.collaboration (0.010015)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


T Olofsson, R P M Jongeling & S Woksepp

The use of Virtual Reality in a large scale industry project

Abstract: LKAB, a large mining company in Sweden, has decided to invest in a new pelletizing plant in Malmberget, Sweden (MK3). The total expenditure will amount to €280 million and the new plant is expected to be operational around the turn of the year 2006-2007. Contractors are expected to employ about 250 in connection with the construction of the plant, while some 150 consultants and engineers are engaged in the design phase. Since time to market is a crucial factor for LKAB, the contractual agreements for cooperation in the project support collaborative working methods such as concurrent engineering, open information flow and introduction of innovations in the design process. The complexity of the project, the number of actors involved and the desire to involve end users such as industrial workers responsible for the future plant operations in the design makes VR an excellent enriched source of communication in the review process.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Tapio Majahalme

About models in facility management

Abstract: The facility management deals with integrated information handling of buildings, spaces, environment and any actions in business. The increasing amount of information and effectiveness requirements force us to improve preparedness in the technical and practical sense. Also continuously changing circumstances will require the information technology to face definitely new challenges. In this study the major attention has been paid to the fundamentals of facility management from the information technology point of view. All action in this brunch should be based on business idea(s) and business strategy. The main business idea can be divided into sub fields and their strategies. Well managed companies should have a facility management strategy. While considering facility management, strategies of information technology have to be taken into account. The other needed viewpoint rises from mapping or connection to real life in an easy comprehensive form. The approach used here is GIS based. All information is based on spaces and geography. The aim of this study is to develop models for computerization of facility management. The models include the activity model and the concept model, the latter of which is designed to be carried out lateler. The activity model describes the actions, processes and tasks which are carried out by the facility manager and the concept model proposes the hierarchical structure for classification of information. The models are designed to be commonly applicable in the field of facility management without being case dependent. The activity model deals with tasks such as itemizing facilities, defining their current status, devising of a solution for facility management and applying that solution in practice. The model also aims at representation of data flows for activities. Practice has indicated the importance of care in the classification of data. The enormous amount of information may cause high maintenance expenses and will lead to trouble if the basic concept is not well controlled.The activity model is presented using the SADT-technique. The concept model which is not yet available will introduce the classification of a building information system from the perspective of facility management. The building information system includes space system, technical system and environmental system which are classified in more details. The EXPRESS-G technique will be used in this representation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,720,428 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.028207) class.commerce (0.021026) class.represent (0.012323)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Thomas Olofsson, Patrik Jensen, Anders Ronneblad

Configuration and Design Automation of Industrialised Building Systems

Abstract: Construction companies in Sweden have for many years been moving work from site to factories, especially in the timber housing industry. Also, these factories are installing more and more automated production lines calling for better integration between design and production. So far, design tools in the construction industry have often been developed without the possibility of parameterization, design automation or direct connections with Computer Numeric Control (CNC) and do not integrate easily with other tools used by different disciplines. Much of recent research has been focused on improving the information flow in the traditional building process by focusing on interfaces between discipline specific analysis and design software. Also, the constraints imposed by the developed building systems cannot not be easily transferred ‘upstream’ the design process. This paper aims to investigate the management of information flow between architects, engineering and production in the design of industrialized building systems. Furthermore, the possibilities of parameterization and design automation is investigated for the implementation of rules and constraints imposed by the building system in design tools used by architects and engineers with the purpose of reducing non-compatible design solutions and to integrate the information flow with the engineering and production process. First, building systems are classified according to customer order decoupling point in the product specification process. Building systems classified as configure-to-order or select-variant are suitable candidates for implementing configuration systems. Then, the information flow is demonstrated in the configuration of a timber floor slab. It is concluded that the engineering design can be automated to a large extent using configuration tools if the architectural design obey the rules imposed by the building system. Also, the amount of data transferred between architect and engineer is reduced since much of the information and knowledge is transferred into formal computer interpretable knowledge.

Keywords: Building system, design automation, information flow, parameterization and constraint based design

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Timo Hartmann

Detecting Design Conflicts Using Building Information Models: A Comparative Lab Experiment

Abstract: One of the applications of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is Clash Detection: The automated detection of clashes between different elements in a BIM. Clash detection helps design coordinators to detect inconsistencies between different sub-systems in early design stages that would, if not detected early, materialize in expensive change orders and delays during the construction stage. However, the existing automated Clash Detections technologies, even for rather simple building designs, usually provide a large amount of clashes of which only a very few are relevant. It is a time consuming and error prone process to filter out the relevant clashes that finally will cause change orders during installation.To help design coordinators to with filtering out only the relevant clashes, modelers should organize BIMs according to a system breakdown structure that allows a clear distinction between different systems. A good organized BIM then theoretically allows design coordinators to find the relevant clashes more efficient and more accurate by filtering out clashes between different systems that are known to cause expensive field change orders if they are not coordinated well. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment. We divided 44 undergraduate students in three groups that each had to conduct a Clash Detection. One group used 2D drawings, one group used a standard BIM, and one group used a with a system breakdown structure organized BIM. As expected, the results of this experiment show that students with the organized BIM detected the most relevant clashes. Interestingly, however, students who used the none organized BIM found less clashes than the students who only used the 2D drawings. Overall, these findings show that the application of automated clash detection technologies requires well organized input BIMs to provide an advantage over the traditional 2D drawing based design coordination process.

Keywords: BIM, design coordination, clash detection, system breakdown structure, lab experiment

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Tizani W, Whitehead A S, Greig A R, Blackman S

A support system for a good practice approach to the conceptual design of tubular space bridges

Abstract: The construction of large bridge projects is a complex and fragmented process. The design and construction of bridge decks made with tubular space structures is no different. These structures offer a structurally efficient solution but they are considered expensive because of the cost of fabrication associated with complex geometry at the connections and the amount of manual welding required. This paper describes the result of a study aimed at making such a solution more viable. This is done through the development of a semi-automated welding system, to reduce fabrication costs, and the implementation of an IT enabled 'good-practice? design process, to effect an integrated and construction-led approach to the design. The study has led to the integration of the different facets of the design process while also taking into account practical considerations involved in the fabrication. This has been achieved by the implementation of the above in experimental software to assist the designer during the conceptual design stage.

Keywords: business-process, good-practice, integration, design, tubular steelwork, fabrication process, welding

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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