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Trucco E, Kaka A P

A framework for automatic progress assessment on construction sites using computer vision

Abstract: Site managers spend a significant amount of time measuring, recording and analysing progress on site. Information is continuously captured and exchanged between individuals, teams and firms for valuation purposes, productivity measurement, schedule or quality control. Images of construction sites provide an enormous amount of information about progress. Computer vision offers great potential for analysing this information automatically. This paper brings two contributions in this direction. First, we propose a computational framework to capture and measure construction progress automatically from video images taken on site. The novelty lies in the introduction of automatic assessments usable in IT systems while construction work is still in progress; normally, only information developed at the design stage is used. Second, we propose an algorithm for recognising objects and structures in unconstrained outdoors site imagery. This can be used to determine the location of a part of building or structure within a site, and for non-textual indexing and image selection in large image records from construction projects. We report and discuss the results of experiments with real images from two different building sites.

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Tsutomu Watanuki and Nobuyoshi Yabuki

Data Management Methods for a 3D Product Model in Graph Database

Abstract: In Building Information Modeling (BIM), a product model of a building includes huge data which is proceeded in its whole lifecycle. Many stakeholders need to share the product model on the Internet in order to work cooperatively. However, it is difficult to share the product model on the Internet because the amount of product model data is huge and has a very deep hierarchical structure. Thus, in this research, we propose data management methods to store and obtain data of product models. In these methods, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data is converted and stored in a graph DBMS classified as NoSQL, which stands for Not only SQL.Finally, good results have been obtained in queries from the graph database in which product models are stored. And we were able to extract representation data of a storey from a product model of a building which has 5 stories.

Keywords: BIM, Graph Database, NoSQL, IFC, Graph Theory

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0025

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Turk Z

Software agents and robots in construction:an outlook

Abstract: The rapid growth of the World Wide Web (Web) has spawned some rather new technologies forhandling the vast amount of information available there. Services like Yahoo, AltaVista and Virtual SoftwareLibrary use web crawling robots and agents to gather the information. Construction information processes havemany similarities to the Internet - both are fragmented, there are numerous information sources and theinformation is poorly structured. We have successfully applied similar technologies that have proven themselveson the Internet to handle construction information. Custom robots and an agent-enabled database have beendeveloped and have been used in the on-going research projects. They have proven useful on the globalconstruction scope of a construction virtual library, on a narrower national scope of regulation managementand on the project level to manage documents. The paper identifies the problems, introduces the technologies,demonstrates how they were used in construction context and concludes that in a client-server environment suchas the Internet or an intranet, agent technology is an important building block of CIC environments.

Keywords: construction information technology, computerization of building regulations, documentmanagement, virtual libraries, Internet, intranet, agent, robot, database.

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Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Turner J A

A systems approach to the conceptual modeling of buildings

Abstract: A building project demands and generates an enormous amount of data, As a building design progresses from a vague program to a detailed design, its data progresses from inexact - approximate areas and locations of rooms, alternative building forms - to exact - type, finish and location of each door hinge, exact polygonal representation of each room The traditional building professional has traditional media and tools for storing, retrieving, displaying and modifying building data: Construction documents, specifications, building models, parts catalogs, sketches and one's memory do an effective job. But as we move (are forced?) away from traditional to a more computer-dependent building design, traditional tools and media are no longer useful. Whether computer analogues for traditional tools and media are developed or whether computers revolutionize the building industry, sketches, drawings, specifications and models are being replaced by data-structures, data-bases, rules, facts, and hyper-structures. This paper presents an approach to formally analyzing the structure and relationship of building data for the purpose of defining a CAD building database. A building and its site are assumed to be a collection of systems. A generic system is defined as a framework for specific site and building systems. The paper introduces and uses the NIAM graphical notation for binary relationship conceptual modeling. The paper will also report on the application of this approach to the definition of a standard for exchanging building product data (PDES/STEP)

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Full text: content.pdf (2,601,819 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.032609) class.represent (0.028459) class.analysis (0.011645)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


U. Walder, G. Glanzer, A. Merkel, R. Schütz, T. Wießflecker

Facility management data in disaster management

Abstract: Nowadays large real estates and infrastructural installations are managed using Computer Aided Facili-ties Management-systems (CAFM-systems). These systems are based on the graphical and alphanumerical base data of the building, as well as real-time data from master control systems and security installations. Even though a substantial number of rules and regulations exist concerning how the information is to be gathered and administered, there are still no standardised international norms in that area. Further, there are no provider-specific data and database structures on how to deal with the large amount of data, since the market is still far from consolidation and no single system has a market-dominating position. This is not a downfall in the daily routine of a facility manager, since most systems inte-grate all processes of the facilities management, but the incoherent data can cause problems when exchanging them with other applications or during benchmarking. Severe problems arise with the lack of standards in extraordinary situations when numerous im-portant decisions with major consequences have to be taken within a short period of time. In cases of fires, floods or terrorist attacks the base data of the buildings need to be readily available in an adequate format. Further these data should be constantly up-dated and integrated with real-time data from the Disaster Management System (DMS). The main challenges in this situation are locating and tracking rescue teams, the local information management and the communication between the on-site staff and the command centre. The Institute for Building Informatics at TU Graz in coopera-tion with the security industry is currently researching and developing a CAFM-based DMS (CADMS). In the following the individ-ual aspects and technical problems are outlined and first re-sults are presented.

Keywords: facility management data, indoor positioning, sensors, system integration

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Weise M, Katranuschkov P, Scherer R J

Generalised model subset definition schema

Abstract: The idea of a shared product data repository that can be efficiently used in distributed concurrent engineering environments takes practical shape with the ripening of the IFC platform. However, structured methods for defining and deriving different partial model views that can easily be used by domain-specific applications are not yet available. This paper presents a generalised model subset definition schema (GMSD) which tackles many issues related to partial model retrieval and the use of domain-specific views. The schema, defined in EXPRESS for consistence with the IFC project model, contains two subparts: (1) constructs supporting the dynamic selection of object instances in model server queries, and (2) constructs enabling the development of view definitions that can be used as permanent part of a model server environment, to support the automated derivation of discipline-specific model subsets for architectural or structural design, facilities management etc. Discussed are the requirements that have governed the development of GMSD, its basic concepts, a prototype server/client implementation and first test-bed results. The latter indicate the great potential of the suggested structured approach for the definition of appropriate model subsets to improve the amount and quality of the exchanged data between actors and applications.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Xiaoning Ren, Zhenhua Zhu and Zhi Chen

Automatic Monitoring of Operating Equipment Efficiency for Air Pollutant Emission Estimation

Abstract: Construction activities are considered as one of the major air pollutant emissions sources. Specifically, construction equipment produces a large share of the emissions, including carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, etc. on construction sites. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor and control the operating efficiency of the onsite equipment in order to reduce the amount of its air pollutant emissions. However, the current practices for monitoring and measuring the operating equipment efficiency is heavily dependent on the practitionersÕ observations. It is labour-intensive and time-consuming. The main objective of this paper is to present a novel method for automatically monitoring the operating equipment efficiency (OEE) with the fusion of visual and thermal data. Under the method, construction equipment is firstly located and tracked in the visual and thermal data. Based on the locating and tracking results, the equipment value-added activities are identified to determine its valuable operating time. Moreover, the total operating time is determined by checking the duration of the equipment with the running engine. This way, the OEE can be measured as the ratio of the valuable operating time over the total operating time. The method has been tested on the construction site of Poste De Lorimier in Montreal. The test results indicate its effectiveness.

Keywords: Operating Equipment Efficiency; Automation; Video Analysis; Thermal Data; Air Pollutant Emissions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0207

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Yong Cho, George Morcous, Koudous Kabassi, Jill Neal

BIM-Driven Economic Analysis for Zero Net Energy Test Home

Abstract: This paper presents a case study that utilized a Building Information Model (BIM) for 5D cost estimation and theoretical energy analysis to support economic study of a research test bed called the Zero Net Energy Test House (ZNETH). The ZNETH project is being designed and built with the goal of consuming a negligible amount of energy by offsetting usage through energy conservation and residential energy generation. To offset the consumed energy of the household occupants, a wind turbine and solar panels were selected as the energy production resources for this project along with several sustainable materials and systems such as Insulated Concrete Foundation (ICF), Exterior Insulation Finishing System (EIFS), and a closed loop geothermal system. By integrating the highly graphical and intuitive analysis with a BIM of the house, this investigation introduces strategies to include such renewable energy options and sustainable building materials for the ZNETH to predict its economic benefits. The theoretically consumed and generated energy levels were analyzed. It was found that the current design of ZNETH does not have greater economic benefit than cost. In addition, this research conducted sensitive analyses for better design and construction material selection with various sustainable design alternatives. Finally, theoretical suggestions are presented to assist ZNETH in meeting its net zero energy goal and economic returns. Findings from this research will be used for designing ZNETH II which is currently under investigation.

Keywords: BIM, 5D cost estimation, zero net energy test house, energy analysis, economic analysis

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Youyi Feng, Fei Dai and Jiaqing Zhao

Comparing Feature Matching Algorithms for Measuring In-Plane Strains on Civil Infrastructures

Abstract: Maintaining structural integrity of civil infrastructures such as bridges and tunnels is always an essential task for civil engineers. Collapse or damage of these infrastructures may lead to a tremendous amount of painful injuries, casualties, and societal losses. This paper reported the work on evaluating optimal feature matching algorithms for development of visual sensing-based techniques to measure in-plane deflections and strains in order to facilitate monitoring and evaluation of integrity of civil infrastructures in a cost-effective way. A series of experiments were conducted in which three algorithms Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) were compared. The result indicated that DIC has superiority among the three algorithms. To further assess the accuracy of DIC, a high-speed industrial camera was then used to capture a series of continuous image frames of deformed real-world scenarios. The DIC algorithm was adopted in the feature detection and tracking process, and in-plane displacement and strains were calculated and compared with the ground truth. The result indicated that the DIC-based method can achieve highly accurate performance in measuring in-plane deflections and strains for civil infrastructures and holds potential to the development of visual sensing enabled structural health monitoring.

Keywords: Image-Based Methods, Structural Health Monitoring, Visual Sensing, Non-Contact Measurements, Comparative Study

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0165

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Yusuf F, Alshawi M

Improving the brief through information and process modelling

Abstract: Due to the vast amount of information and knowledge involved in construction projects, clients often have difficulties in identifying and communicating their actual requirements. In order to address this information effectively during the briefing process, such information is modelled into structured data models using EXPRESS-G technique. The processes involved during the development of the brief, however, are modelled using IDEF0 technique.The developed models establish the foundation for the development of a computerised system, which utilise an object oriented environment. The implemented object oriented data models then form the framework for the presentation of the client's brief. These models, when implemented into the computerised environment, will significantly enhance the communication channel between the various parties involved from a very early stage of a construction project. The outcome is an improved brief, which fulfils the client's budgetary constraints.

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Full text: content.pdf (102,590 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.032608) class.communication (0.022096) class.environment (0.020282)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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