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Debras P

Construction application of a gen-network : uniform access to standards, products and company information

Abstract: "Facing an increasing competitive environment where flexibility and adaptability to change are the obliged route to success, building and construction companies have to continuously renew their working habits while keeping business processes under quality, time and cost control. In the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) domain, the wide diversity in terms of the object built, but also associated to the geographical dispersion of actors and building sites makes such an agility even more crucial. Considering the design and tendering phase of a construction operation, the architects and construction engineers have to efficiently select the manufactured products that will best suit the project while complying to its numerous constraints. Beyond the functionality, performance and cost characteristics, a suitable product has also to conform to the applying regulations and standards, be eventually accompanied with a corresponding technical agreement, offer acceptable delivery solutions on the building site. Moreover, once identified within a manufacturer catalogue, the product has to be integrated into the architect or engineer application desktop, whether it be a CAD, specification writer or quantity take-off application. Addressing these needs, the Global Engineering Networking (GEN) initiative is promoting the reuse of company internal and external engineering knowledge through the emergence of new kind of global market places where actors publish and retrieve on-line a wide range of engineering information and services. In particular, The Construction Pilot in EP 22 284 GENIAL project demonstrates over the AEC domain, the relevance of new generation of Information Technology infrastructures supporting the erection of Value-Added Service Provider (VASP) sites that materialise the GEN vision, i.e. allowing information and services to smoothly be retrieved where required whilst the succeeding company is concentrating on its core competencies. With such an infrastructure, whether it is through material, performances, manufacturer, regulation or price discrimination, the appropriate component, document or service is rapidly and cost effectively brought on the designer desk for the best value of the overall project. On the other side of the communication pipe, the supplying partner gains the opportunity of reaching an enlarged audience as IT now commonly break any geographical distance. In practice, three major information publishers and a building contractor in Europe initiate the GEN network in the AEC domain through the erection of VASP sites offering product, company or document related information. User queries are governed by various standard (EPIC, UNICLASS) or corpus specific (BATIBASE, EDIBATEC) classification systems. Relevance of the overall approach is demonstrated through the presentation of a large variety of such queries for the various information corpuses used : Techcom company and product information, BIC company, product and document, REEF regulation documentary corpus or EDIBATEC product information."

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Full text: content.pdf (748,881 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.032376) class.retrieve (0.019963) class.roadmaps (0.012591)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Dijkstra J, Timmermans H, B de Vries

VR based simulation of user behaviour within the built environment to support the early stages of building design

Abstract: Architects are often faced with the problem to assess how their design decisions will affect the behaviour of individuals. Various performance indicators are related to the behaviour of individuals in particular environments. One approach to deal with this problem is to develop a system that relates user behaviour to design parameters. The paper discusses the framework of a multi-agent system approach for investigating visualized simulated pedestrian activity and behaviour within a building. The approach will lead to a system that may serve as a toolkit in the design process for a better understanding what the design look like, and perhaps more importantly have users will behave in that particular environment. Agent technology is derived from DAI which is also applied in the construction industry (Onuegbu O. Ugwu e.a., The application of DAI in the construction industry, CIT2000, pp. 959-970). The concept of this system is based on micro-simulation of pedestrian flows and multi-agent technology. In this context, pedestrians are people navigating within the built environment. The system simulates how agents move around in a particular 3D environment, in which space is represented as a network which is a lattice of cells with local states, subject to a uniform set of rules, which drives the behaviour of the system. Agents represent pedestrians with their own behaviour, moving over the network. The 3D environment is a virtual environment of the design of a new building or the revitalization of an existing building. Thus, a virtual building environment with virtual pedestrians will be constructed using multi-agent simulation. In this particular environment, a set of instances corresponding to the elements of multi-agent simulations is designed. We distinguish user-agents that represent pedestrians in the simulation. We call the individual that is supposed to walk through the environment a subject-agent and all other simulated pedestrians in the system actor-agents. Thus, subject-agent and actor-agents are user-agents that navigate in this virtual environment, each with their own behaviour, beliefs and intentions. With the simulation system, we will get more insight into the pedestrian activity behaviour and thus in the pedestrian flows in buildings, not yet existing. This will be of great importance in the assessment of design performance. For a designer or researcher, this system approach results in a decision support tool for the early stages in the design process of the construction of a building.

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Full text: content.pdf (484,430 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.029736) class.analysis (0.014083) class.impact (0.008671)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Eilif Hjelseth, Nick Nisbet

Overview of Concepts for Model Checking

Abstract: This paper gives an overview and a description of different concepts for model checking. Model checking is defined as execution of predefined rules on a building information model, e.g. an IFC-file. Rules can be based on laws, regulations, codes, standards, advisory material or self defined requirements for generally or project specific use. The different concepts will be presented with a description and examples of use related to stages in the life cycle of the design process (ISO 22263:2008). The paper will discus mixed use of these concepts in basis of IDDS, integrated design and delivery (IDDS, 2010). Generally should model checking be use to support areas where the designer is not an expert – or other (repetitive) tasks human performance is error prone. An model who have passed all checks can at it’s best said to be “not bad”, and never to be the best designed building. Reasoned feedback is an important part of model checking.The following concepts will (so far) be presented: A) Validating model checking. The checking is performed against a set or rules, that all must be passed, or not activated, to pass the validation. Examples are checking against codes or standards. Following sub-types: Geometry based, information based and mixed systems will be explained. B) Asking model checking. This is rules applied on defined situations who ask for a choice between different alternatives. Examples are choose of venetian blinds and ventilation related to area of window. C) Self checking and adaptive model checkingExample of this is the adaptation of the diameter of the column in response to number of floors. D) Reversed model checkingExamples are checking a model and give feedback on which codes / standards, or parts of this that is relevant. Support for manual checkingReference:IDDS, 2010. Introduction to Integrated Design and Delivery Solutions, http://www.cibworld.nl/site/programme/priority_themes/integrated_design_solutions.html , (visited: 201-03-30).ISO 22263:2008. Organization of information about construction works -- Framework for management of project information. http://www.iso.org/iso/search.htm?qt=22263&sort=rel&type=simple&published=on (visited: 2010-03-30).

Keywords: checking, ontology, BIM

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Full text: content.pdf (115,136 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Ekholm A, Fridqvist S

A prototype computer program for product design applied to the construction context

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the requirements for an information system for product design and present an information system in the form of a prototype computer program that tests these principles in the context of building design. Design is a product determination process, i.e. the properties of a possible product are determined during the process. Design can be categorised as routine or innovative. In routine design the product is well known and the determination process includes selecting a prototype solution and determining its variable attributes. Innovative design is necessary when no such prototype solution can be applied, and new kinds of things and new uses for known things have to be created. Innovative design is a search process characterised by adding and removing attributes from the product model. In an information system for routine design the product model can be an instance of a specific product type, whereas in innovative design the product model must be an instance of a much more generic thing. In the latter case, the classification of the product model is determined successively during the design process. Information systems can be characterised as open or closed concerning classification of model objects, and concerning definition of classes in the conceptual schema. An information system for routine design can be closed in both respects, while an information system for innovative design must be open in these respects, so that the designer can define new attributes and classes and reclassify model objects. Building design, especially during early stages, is an example of innovative design. In the paper we describe a prototype program for product design, with examples of its use in the construction context. The prototype supports the above-mentioned dual openness by implementing a data model where the product model may freely be given attributes and be classified on the basis of these attributes.

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Full text: content.pdf (81,934 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.034925) class.represent (0.028448) class.synthesis (0.018176)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Bjrk and Dr. Adina Jgbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Erbug C

An ergonomics model for product design

Abstract: This paper models the integration of ergonomics knowledge to the design process. It is suggested that, neither a single methodology, nor an information system will be sufficient to cover all the requirements of an ergonomic product. The relative emphasis given to ergonomics varies with the types of design problem. Nonetheless, it is assumed that the design process will always involve the user, thus ergonomics. The difficulties arise from ill-defined nature of design, inadequate knowledge background or inadequate data which requires a long-tern approach where everything should be thought at macro level. For this purpose, the aim of the paper is to propose a communication model for ergonomists and designers who believe in the value of experts. Therefore, this model presents a macro outlook onto ergonomics and product design, whereas further studies may extend the scope by presenting sub-models for reaching details in the design process or existing micro models (expert or aiding systems) will be valuable sources if they are inserted into this system. "he research is focused on literature search, accident analysis and design strategy analysis. The chief questions to be addressed in the literature search are: - What is the relation between design and ergonomics? - What is designer's responsibility in terms of design, manufacturing and products liability? - What kind of ergonomics information do designers need? How reliable are they? . - What is meant by product-user interaction? The chief questions to be addressed in accident analysis are: - What kind of information does accident analysis provide? - What is the reliability of accident data?. - How is this information used in design? The chief questions to be addressed in design strategy analysis are: - What is a model and what type of models exist in design? - What is design management? - What is a product life-cycle? reputation? . - What are the benefits of product safety in terms of company's reputation?

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Full text: content.pdf (1,072,735 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026991) class.synthesis (0.025631) class.social (0.018099)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


F Talbourdet, F Andrieux, B Vinot, Pierre Michel, M El Mankibi, J R Millet

Stochastic optimization based approach for efficient building design

Abstract: Facing the building related energetic and environmental issues, and heeding the thermal regulations standards, building designers have to think in a different way there design approach in order to make buildings more efficient. Therefore, designers need a method to get information on the potential of a building program and on the optimal solution to improve visual and thermal comfort, and to reduce energy requirements and construction cost. This paper describes a genetic algorithm based approach applied to building energy simulation tools in order to optimize building design, from the geometry to the energetic properties, while minimizing energy, discomforts and costs. According to designer goals, two approaches were studied: The first way is to let designers choose the approach of optimization for the building geometry, from optimization of external and internal geometry to providing complete geometry. The second way is to let designers adapt the scope of the optimization.In order to take various potential occupancies into account, several models of occupation has been integrated to the building numerical model. Models could be provided by designers according to their feedback.To finish, this approach is tested on a basic case to assess its performances and to find the points where it needs to be improved.

Keywords: Efficient Building design, Multicriteria optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Bioclimatic architecture

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Finch E F, Flanagan R, Marsh1 L E

Electronic document management in construction using auto id

Abstract: The construction process relies upon the effective management of a variety of project information including drawings; specifications; bills of quantities; and other technical data. The method of information transfer determines the ease with which information can be assimilated and used into the construction process. Despite the widespread use of computers for the generation of project information, hard copy documentation remains the primary method of information transfer withn the construction industry. Electronic Document Management (EDM) systems offer a'level of control over information flow within the construction process, whether documents are in hard copy or in electronic format. However, many of the existing methods of information transfer undermine the performance of EDM systems in two respects; (1) they require the user to re-enter information to register incoming documents into a data base; (2) they cannot interpret and manipulate information contained in or supporting the document. Ths paper describes a method of bar coding hard copy drawings in order to electronically transfer document information from designer to contractor. This approach is designed to improve the functionality of EDM system where hard copy documents predominate. The paper also considers the requirements for bar code application standards which would further improve the data exchange process concerning documents.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,255,849 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.044653) class.store (0.039576) class.education (0.029936)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Fridqvist S, Ekholm A

Basic object structure for computer aided modeling in building design

Abstract: This working paper describes important considerations for development of a computer-based modelling tool for use in design. Such a tool must support the actions of a designer. The design tool presented here is both generic and consistent as a result of its foundation in a well-conceived ontological theory. At first the concrete things that are to be represented are described, then it is shown how these things can be represented, and a conceptual schema is suggested. Finally we discuss how operations on this data structure correspond to different design activities.

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Full text: content.pdf (57,032 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.048220) class.represent (0.032839) class.impact (0.020489)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Fridqvist S

Implementation of a dynamic information system for design

Abstract: This paper reports an implementation of the conceptually most important features of the BAS.CAAD information system, and the use of this implementation to create models of different levels of generalisation in the construction context. The foundations for the BAS.CAAD information system, which have been presented in an earlier paper, are briefly described. It is a dynamic information system for design, built on a generic ontological framework. The system supports the definition of classes in different levels of universality; the classes may originate from different standards or the individual designer, and allows a free combination of attributes.

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Full text: content.pdf (106,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.020092) class.legal (0.004521) class.standards (0.003381)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Friedman A, Medek L

Evaluation of existing CAD programs used by clients in housing design and marketing

Abstract: There exists a knowledge gap between architects and buyers in the North American homebuilding industry. Mass produced housing is commonly conceived for a user whose needs are unknown to the designer during the design process. In a built model unit, potential home-buyers canappreciate how their future home will look prior to the purchasing decision. Changing this process, by allowing the user to participate in the design process, can only be accepted once both the builder's and the buyers' objectives are satisfied. We wanted to explore the possibility of having clients directly involved in their home design for the purpose of improving both user satisfaction as well as unit marketing potential. Given the fact that computers have become more accessible toboth designers and the public at large, we assumed that users can operate a pre-prepared program by themselves, on which they can make limited design decisions. In our preliminary research, we found several software companies that are already marketing such programs. The objectives of our research were to determine the merit of these programs and to establish their potential in order to narrow the knowledge gap between builders/ architects and clients in the marketing and the construction of housing. We found that these programs do not adequately familiarize the user with the manipulation of the software or hardware systems. Their operation is rather complex for the lay person and better documentation and instructions are needed if these programs are to be integrated in the future marketing of housing.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,038,057 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.021363) class.synthesis (0.018133) class.software-machine (0.016713)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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