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Rafal Kicinger, Artur Winnicki, Tomasz Arciszewski, Kenneth De Jong

Evolutionary design for blast of steel structural systems

Abstract: This paper introduces a novel concept of evolutionary design for blast of steel structural systems. It pro-vides both conceptual and computational frameworks for conducting automated concept generation, analysis, dimen-sioning, and optimization. The proposed concept has been developed through the integration of various results from previous research on evolutionary design, structural analysis using the finite element method, and computer simula-tions of blast utilizing computational fluid dynamics. The paper describes the architecture and individual components of the computer system implementing the proposed concept. The system has been built upon the evolutionary design platform developed at George Mason University. In the developed system, blast loads have been determined using FEFLO, an advanced computational fluid dynamics sys-tem created in the Center for Computational Fluid Dynamics at GMU. Structural design and optimization is conducted by Emergent Designer, an integrated research and design support tool developed by the first author. The analysis is performed by ABAQUS, an advanced system for finite element analysis, which allows the explicit structural analysis and evaluation of dynamic behavior of steel structural systems under blast loads when nonlinear behavior of materials and structure is considered. The developed system enables automatic generation of parameterized designs both at the conceptual and detailed de-sign levels. This was achieved through fully parameterized and object-oriented interfaces connecting major components of the system. This full parameterization facilitates automatic parameterized 3D finite element model generation from the level of dimensions of sketches defining cross-sections of structural members to the level of 3D assemblies of solid parts representing entire structural systems.

Keywords: structural design, blast effects, evolutionary computation, finite element analysis, engineering software

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Rafia M Y

Optimum building concept generation and integration of design process using a structured genetic algorithm

Abstract: The paper investigates the application of a structured Genetic Algorithm (sGA) to the structural design of buildings. The current research aim is to develop a decision support system to assist the designer at the conceptual stage of the design process where important decisions which influence the future of projects, are made; a very significant amount of the total project cost is committed at this stage. The paper also discusses the possibility of the integration of design activities of disciplines involved in the design process, using the sGA. Methodologies of using sGA are introduced and some of the shortcomings of the sGA are identified.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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S Soubra,J Hans, G Picinbono

INFORMATION MODELING AND SIMULATION TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

Abstract: The transformation process towards sustainable construction will be greatly improved by the adoption of Information Modelling combined with simulation capabilities. Indeed, the impacts of the built environment upon global climate change as well as associated economic and political issues represent complex and multidisciplinary challenges to which the construction industry must respond through the implementation of innovative business processes as well as systems integration both facilitated by information technologies.In particular, the coupling of BIM (Building Information Model) with information about environmental dimensions of building materials and components (e.g. carbon footprint, energy performance Ö) allows simulation packages to predict the effects of using different materials / components in various conditions. This will produce significant advantages to the designer by allowing to take into account the environmental impact of the building over its lifecycle. Many factors can then be considered such as the use of potentially lower carbon footprint materials and their energy performances along with trade offís associated with the cost implication and the use of renewable energies.In that context, the paper will address R&D conducted by CSTB and aiming to develop a BIM based prescription tool coupled with environmental assessment functionalities. This tool allows to import a BIM / IFC coming from the architect and then, depending on the performances to achieve (e.g. the annual energy consumption), will search the industrial catalogues and then propose to the user relevant systems adapted to his project and the performances he wants to achieve. The quantity take off for materials and building products used for the construction are then automatically calculated and used to evaluate the environmental impacts of the building using Elodie, the building LCA tool developed by CSTB.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental (LCA), Product Declaration, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), eveBIM, Elodie

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Sariyildiz I S, Stouffs R, Ciftcioglu O, Tuncer B

Future developments of ICT in the building sector

Abstract: "The ICT developments have a dynamic impact on the whole life cycle of a building. Not only in the process and technical part but also in the creative part of the building design process. ? As a result of the development of creatieve software for architectural design, the gap between the designing architect and the building technicians / product architects is getting bigger. ? The developments in the software industry show that the software firms will develop the core of the software, not the application tools. The architects and building engineers will be able to develop their own application tools up to their specific requirements and needs in various disciplines of the building sector. The user will not be dependent on the existing tools as happened until now. ? The software support for the building designer will be object oriented and the tools will be integrated en communicated with each other. ? Within the developments of Internet technology, the building practice will turn to collaboratieve model, CSCW (Computer Supported Collaborative Work) and communication over the Internet. They will work with Internet based mobile agents. ? The items referred above already indicate the potential of the synergy between ICT and software technology. Namely, the indispensable relationship between ICT and computer technology on one side and computer technology and software technology on the other, resulted in the fast transfer of software development into ICT area. As result of this, the new advancements are on the way to enhance the effectiveness of the software in this synergy. In particular, today the intelligent systems, among others, are replacing more and more the conventional systems, such as intelligent manufacturing and intelligent design technologies. To cope with the information acquisition and information handling demand of intelligent technologies, computer oriented new methodologies and techniques are being developed, in parallel. Knowledge discovery (data mining) technology is one example of such emerging software technologies. Here it is important to point out that, next to the advancements of intelligent systems, the software is inevitably getting more intelligent as well. Therefore, the soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic and the genetic algorithms are going to play increasing role in intelligent design and they will make contributions in the problem solving of the design process. This paper will focus on the above mentioned themes and will highlight the anticipated developments of the ICT for the building sector."

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.040087) class.retrieve (0.039620) class.communication (0.034291)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Stouffs R, Krishnamurti R

Standardization: A critical view

Abstract: Standardization is generally considered to be the ultimate solution to the problem of data exchange among collaborative partners. Yet, in non-digital exchanges, standardization has never been much of an issue and project partners exchange information without any need for global standardization. Instead, whenever possible, they rely solely on their own knowledge in order to interpret exchanged data and, otherwise, query the author(s) or colleagues for an explanation. In digital exchanges, one cannot simply rely on such knowledge to be present in the computer or application. Furthermore, it goes against the very essence of digitalization to expect the user to assist the application in interpreting this data, especially considering that even common sense eludes software. As a result, a standardization approach has been at the core of most research efforts in order to resolve this data exchange problem. The assumption is simple: if everyone adopts the same concepts, vocabulary, and language, any data expressed within this language will be accessible to everyone. However, the real question that should be considered is whether standardization will improve the design process through effective data exchange or, instead, hinder the design process by imposing a specific language for designers to express their ideas and conceptualizations in. Ultimately, the designer will be restricted by her ability to translate her design from whatever representation she chose to develop her design within to the standard representation necessary to exchange her design with others in the design and building process. In most cases, this will mean that a designer is limited to using those representations or applications for which translational facilities are provided for and none other. Recent history has shown us that the AEC CAD software industry is everything but a frontrunner when it comes to new developments. Instead, many progressive architects are and have been forced to adopt CAD software from other design disciplines in order to express and represent their architectural designs, such as CATIA, first developed for the aerospace industry, or Maya, developed for the animation and movie industry. To the extreme, it could be argued, with the danger of antagonizing those that are heading the strive for standardization, that this process of standardization is little more than a struggle for self-preservation. It is a fact that were the AEC industry to accept a single standard, the main CAD software developers could afford as before to lag behind in their inclusion of new features or techniques, without having to fear being left at the wayside of evolutions that find their origin in other disciplines. A standard to which almost everyone would adhere to would offer them the necessary time to respond to such outside influences: CAD developers active within other disciplines may not be tempted to adhere to a standard that is outside of their action radius, unless after this radius is enlarged by designers from within the AEC industry exploring the effectiveness of these software applications for their own purposes. Instead, such designers may be forced, as a result of project partners requiring an adherence to this standard, to invest themselves in the development of a translational facility to convert the resulting data from this application into the standardís representation or, instead, wait patiently until such a facility may become available. Even then, such a translational facility will necessary reflect on the current status of the standard, which may not be fully compatible to the concepts or techniques underlying the outside tool or application. In this paper, we discuss the effectiveness of a conceptual standardization in attempting to solve the problem of data exchange within the design process, as well as the role a common syntax may play in easing data exchange while offering designers full flexibility in choosing how to express their architectural designs.

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Full text: content.pdf (162,875 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.023762) class.synthesis (0.023142) class.communication (0.021913)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Tiula M

Construction 90/ development project for conceptual classification

Abstract: Construction/90 - development project for conceptual classification The aim of this development project is to continue the tradition of the national classification systems on the construction branch by introducing a new conceptual classification - Construction/90 which is an offspring of the previous classifications: Building-70 and Building-PO. The first phase of the development work was finished in May 1988. It creates the theoretical basis for the design of the detailed classification system which will be operative from 1990. The structure of the classification consists of three facets Any of the facets is to be able to cover all the costs involved independently, in order to make an economical control possible from different points of view. Thus every facet totally covers its own particular point of view: giving a complete list of the conceptual items Being a conceptual classification, the emphasis lies on the concepts, n7hich n pr3c1icd use are substituted by selected terms It may as such be called a nomenclature. too. For computer use, however. there will be an alphanumeric characteristic for every item as well Every facet has its principal use. The facets and their users are: Product facets: describes the product structure (elements of building) of the project. Principal user: the designer Resource facet: describes the resource structure (commodities, labour, subcontracts, site machinery) of the project. Principal user: contractor'spurchasing. Production facets describes the operations structure of the project. Principal user: the site management. The Construction/90 classification covers all construction work. i.e. architectural, civil engineering and mechanical works. It also covers all phases of construction from preliminary and technical design to contracting and maintenance It has been designed to meet the needs of the object oriented computer aided production.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,652,879 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.016088) class.software development (0.015047) class.retrieve (0.014991)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Tizani W, Whitehead A S, Greig A R, Blackman S

A support system for a good practice approach to the conceptual design of tubular space bridges

Abstract: The construction of large bridge projects is a complex and fragmented process. The design and construction of bridge decks made with tubular space structures is no different. These structures offer a structurally efficient solution but they are considered expensive because of the cost of fabrication associated with complex geometry at the connections and the amount of manual welding required. This paper describes the result of a study aimed at making such a solution more viable. This is done through the development of a semi-automated welding system, to reduce fabrication costs, and the implementation of an IT enabled 'good-practice? design process, to effect an integrated and construction-led approach to the design. The study has led to the integration of the different facets of the design process while also taking into account practical considerations involved in the fabrication. This has been achieved by the implementation of the above in experimental software to assist the designer during the conceptual design stage.

Keywords: business-process, good-practice, integration, design, tubular steelwork, fabrication process, welding

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Vassileva S

An approach of constructing integrated client/server framework for operative checking of building code

Abstract: "The paper presents results from number of investigation over problem of the using of an integrated client/server framework for an automated code-checking system. The changing nature and the complexity of building codes leads to delays in the design and the construction processes. The designer must assess which codes are applicable to a given project. Through a similar process must go an inspector and there can be inconsistencies in interpretation of a given section of the code between different inspectors. After that, he must sort the codes through potential ambiguity in the code provisions. The process of design checking and approval can prolongs the construction and delays the operation of a facility. Automating this process can alleviate the inconsistencies and delays with manual checking. Most previous studies on the process of checking of building code have focused on the processing of design codes for conformance checking. In the present article is proposed to add additional criteria of a building model. On the base of that are summarized representation of code provisions. The structure and attributes of a product model and building code model needed to provide design information are examined by a code-checking program. This program can read the design data and reorganize the information in a form that can be analyzed and compared to the model of the building code. The building code model is described as a mapping of building code provisions in an object-oriented framework. For automation of the process of checking of a building design for compliance to a building code document is developed a program for analysis of a building design. As a design environment is used AutoCAD. Building model is based on IFC Release 1.5 and on additional layer of building component objects. This layer is created with semantics corresponding to the IFC specifications. The designer during the process of design can send the building model to the code-checking program. A program in Auto Lisp extracts the IFC information from the AutoCAD database and converts the information into IFC EXPRESS file. The building code model is based on the same structure as the IPC project model hierarchy. The code-checking program reads in a stream of IPC data to populate its database of building components. The program reads in a stream from a building code file, which is mapping from the text of provisions of a building code document to an EXPRESS file. The code-checking program is on the server of client/server framework. This program reads in a building code EXPRESS file and populates a data structure containing instances of the building code provisions. Finally, the system determinates if a set of provision is relevant to the specific building component associated with a specific space."

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Full text: content.pdf (2,085,356 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.060049) class.represent (0.025494) class.software development (0.024263)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Wade, J.W. and Roach, J.W.

Evaluation Processes in an "Unexpert" Designer

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Series: w78:1990 (browse)
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Weisheng Lu, Ke Chen, Jing Wang and Fan Xue

Developing an Open Access BIM Objects Library: A Hong Kong Study

Abstract: Design in a Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment, in a sense, is similar to playing Lego; a designer puts various objects together to form his/her design. The availability of BIM objects, or say the Lego pieces, is one of the most critical issues for promoting BIM implementation. Existing BIM objects, however, are far from comprehensive. Neither is there a ‘one-size-fits-for-all’ objects library; one has to develop a localised library suiting a particular construction setting. The efforts to tailor-make such a library incur huge costs, which partly explains the mundane BIM implementation in many economies. This paper explores an effective approach to develop an open access BIM objects library focusing on Hong Kong. It does so by (a) determining an ontology-based structure of the library; (b) defining the BIM objects parameters; (c) developing an object processing module (OPM) to unify and integrate the objects from other sources; and (d) exploring the sustainable development of the library. Although further studies are desired to bring it into full reality, the BIM objects library is expected to facilitate building design and information management in a BIM environment. It will also promote BIM implementation in Hong Kong and serve as useful references for other economies.

Keywords: BIM Objects Library, Open Access, Conceptual Model, Domain Ontology

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0254

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