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J. Ye, T.M. Hassan, C.D. Carter & A. Zarli

ICT for Energy Efficiency: The Case for Smart Buildings

Abstract: Economic growth is increasing the demand for energy. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been identified to play an important role in reducing the energy intensity and increasing the energy efficiency of the European Union (EU) economy. ICT will not only improve energy efficiency and help combat climate change, they will also stimulate the development of a large leading-edge market for ICT enabled energy-efficiency technologies that will foster the competitiveness of European industry and create new business opportunities. As ICT are today pervasive to all industrial and business domains, they are expected to generate deep impacts in energy efficiency of buildings of tomorrow. Although versatile statistical information is available on energy consumption in different buildings, there is still limited understanding about the potential of ICT to reduce energy consumption. In order to put ICT at the core of the energy efficiency effort and to enable reaching its full potential, it is necessary to foster research and development (R&D) into novel ICT-based solutions and strengthen their take-up — so that the energy intensity of the economy can be further reduced by adding intelligence to components, equipment and services. In this paper, ICT based support tools to energy efficiency in the so-called smart buildings are investigated. The state-of-the-art in ICT for smart buildings is discussed with focuses on the role of ICT and key fundamental fields in which R&D efforts are needed to enable the energy efficiency in future smart buildings. Five key areas including design and simulation tools, interoperability/standards, building automation, smart metering and user-awareness tools have been identified where there is potential to improve energy efficiency through the use of ICT, and they are considered as the next generation ICT for future smart buildings. As an energy efficient housing example, the Lighthouse built in the UK is discussed in detail along with its ICT integrated building services and demonstration data of energy use. This gives a better understanding of the impacts of ICT on the energy efficiency in buildings. The paper concludes that in order to achieve the energy efficiency in buildings, further support of multidisciplinary R&D and innovation demonstrating the potential of ICT based solutions are needed to foster and accelerate the deployment of energy efficient solutions in buildings.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Jakob Beetz, Leon van Berlo, Ruben de Laat, Pim van den Helm

BIMSERVER.Org – An Open Source IFC Model Server

Abstract: In this paper we introduce the ongoing development of a free and open model server to persist, maintain and manage instance models of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. By using open standards, robust existing software frameworks, best practices and workflows accepted in the broader software engineering world as the basis of our framework, we hope to gain traction within the research and development community by creating a completely open reference implementation that is free to use and extend within individual research projects and commercial applications. By providing an open and extendable architecture around a robust and performant kernel we hope to be able to encourage the integration of many earlier and current efforts that have been undertaken in the field of IFC-based model processing.We describe the set of features implemented so far and give an outline of a roadmap for future developments. Some of these implemented features include: User management, up- and downloads of models, a check-out and check-in mechanism and versioning. As part of this versioning mechanism we show a tree comparison algorithm that allows the creation of version-deltas we refer to as change sets. These change sets are used to minimize the amount of traffic to and from the central repository by only communicating its differences. All server-side functionality described here is exposed through a web-service API which has been used to implement web-based and standalone client applications. A filtering mechanism allows the extraction of sub-models such as specific element types. We show how we transform original STEP part 11 EXPRESS schemas into a Meta-Object-Facility (MOF), and store them in XMI/EMF models. Furthermore, we describe how our framework provides a mapping to a BerkeleyDB database facilitating its rich set of features. We demonstrate how we use a suite of more than 1600 IFC models from various sources to test the integrity of the framework. To demonstrate that our framework works efficiently enough for real-world building model scenarios, we provide some performance indicators using this extensive suite of test models.We finish our report by laying out some of the ideas and plans for the future development of the server which include query languages (for the definition of IDMs etc.), a viewer (e.g. for the visualization of differences between model versions) and the integration of other model schemas such as the ISO 12006-3.

Keywords: IFC, model server, BIM, CAD, collaboration

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Jardim-Goncalves R, Sousa P, Pimentao J, Steigergarcao A, Grilo A, Tadeu L

Integration of planning and control activities for building and construction: experiencing standards

Abstract: The effective exchange of information regarding the planning and control activities (schedules, resources, materials, cost, cash flow) between the different parties involved in building and construction projects is a critical success factor to avoid projects' time and costs overrun and to insure better quality. However, current applications and research and development efforts on electronic exchange of information are usually restricted to the exchange of technical design information, particularly CAD exchange amongst designers and between these and contractors; and of business data (purchase orders, invoices, remittance advice, etc.), between contractors and builders, merchants and suppliers. This paper will review current practitioners' approach to the exchange of planning and control information, and discuss the business need to the seamless flow of scheduling, resource, materials, and cost information between firms. Different technical solutions available to address the subject will be described. Through the description of the experience in this area of two European projects, RoadRobot and SUMMIT, the paper will also describe the state-of-the-art regarding the development of international standards for the exchange of planning and control information, particularly at the EDIFACT, STEP and IAI levels. RoadRobot - Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot for Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications, was a project devoted to implement a general standard-based architecture to support the information management for road construction environments, covering from the road design to road construction, embracing the site, cell, machine and tool levels. SUMMIT - Supply Chain Management In Construction Industry, is an end-user driven project which envisages the creation, implementation, test and evaluation of an EDI, STEP and IAI/IFC based communication infrastructure on a specific project of building prefabricated houses, connecting project manager, contractor and suppliers. This paper shows that international standards for planning and control information in B and C are not yet enough developed and that further developments are required.

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Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.016652) class.software-machine (0.015641) class.commerce (0.015140)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Johannes Dimyadi, Guido Governatori and Robert Amor

Evaluating LegalDocML and LegalRuleML as a Standard for Sharing Normative Information in the AEC/FM Domain

Abstract: Legal text is typically conveyed in natural language and thus not readily suitable for computer processing. Numerous work-around approaches have been proposed by researchers in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Facilities Management (AEC/FM) domain over the last four decades to create computable representations of normative data that can be used to automate some of the processes in the domain. The transition from human-readable text to a structured representation can occur in many possible ways, e.g. through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, manual annotations, or through direct coding. In all cases, however, the human-readable document at the source remains the sole point of reference. Ideally, however, one digital structured representation should also be available and recognised as the single digital point of reference.Research in the AEC/FM domain has shown that automated compliant building design processes would benefit from a single standardised and manageable digital representation of normative data. Recent efforts in the legal domain have shown promising developments in legal mark-up languages such as LegalDocML and LegalRuleML as emerging open standards for legal knowledge interchange. In this article, we explore the potential of adapting these emerging standards to accommodate specific requirements of the AEC/FM domain.

Keywords: Legal Knowledge Model, Normative Information, Automated Compliance Audit, LegalDocML, LegalRuleML

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0012

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K Ercoskun & A Dikbas

Enabling Relationship Management: Agent Technology for Facility Management Integration

Abstract: Integration is a common effort in every industry. On the operational level, establishing effective communication and collaboration between business actors is a vital contemporary need for ""Total Quality"". Business patterns in construction industry depend on ""Projects"". Despite the efforts of sharing knowledge in order to establish and discern excellence in construction, every project is naturally a closed system hiding great amount of ""Information"" from the participants of ""other"" projects. A reasonable amount of this hidden information may be ""discovered"" from post-construction phases of a project's lifetime. Providing a strong relationship mechanism between different project actors is possible through facility management integration. This paper presents basic concepts of a ""Customer service call tracking system for facility management"" which by design puts the customer at the center of post-construction processes and enables various actors of construction industry to serve in collaboration within a platform providing effective communication and collaboration. The framework proposed within this research consists of various process models which are designed to resolve Business to Business (B2B), Business to Enterprise (B2E) and Business to Customer (B2C) relationship types. The Meta system in which the common standards and protocols of communication defined is implemented as a web based project model and agent technology is used to provide a loosely coupled integration mechanism. The core of the model is named as CC-Agent (Customer to Construction Agent) and is implemented as a series of web services.""

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


K Meniru, C Bédard & H Rivard

Early Building Design: Capturing Decisions for Better Interoperability

Abstract: Interoperability depends largely on accurate interpretation of data from one form to another. Current efforts (e.g., the IFCs) provide ways to do this, however such solutions are not available when work is accomplished manually. This is unfortunately how work is done today in the most important stage of building design - early building design. The translations that occur when transferring concepts to later stages or when referring to work at this stage entails a high potential for errors that increase cost and delay work. This paper investigates the work process in this early stage of building design and presents requirements for supporting it, a design that satisfies these requirements and a prototype to illustrate an implementation of the design.

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Kamara J M, Anumba C J, Carrillo P M, Bouchlaghem N

Conceptual framework for live capture and reuse of project knowledge

Abstract: The concept of knowledge management (KM) is now familiar to the construction industry, and various attempts are being made to develop tools and techniques for the effective management of knowledge in the industry. This paper addresses the ‘live’ capture of construction project knowledge, which is as yet, an elusive goal in KM efforts. It describes an approach to achieve this using a combination of techniques and tools including learning histories, collaborative learning, project extranets and workflow management. This proposed methodology also specifies the incorporation of a ‘project knowledge file’ which will form the basis of knowledge capture during the execution of a project, an integrated workflow system and a project knowledge manager. The intention is to ensure the currency and relevance of the knowledge captured, prevent the ‘re-invention of the wheel’, and facilitate innovation, increased agility, better teamwork and supply chain integration, and improved project performance.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Karhu, Vesa

A generic construction process modelling method

Abstract: A variety of modelling methods has been used to model construction processes and projects, either during normal project planning or for process re-engineering efforts or research. One common method, which is widely used by construction industry practitioners, is scheduling. In addition to schedules, some companies have used a simple box-and-arrow method, which graphically resembles schedules, for analysing their working processes. More formal methods such as IDEF0 have been used in re-engineering projects and by researchers. All these methods are limited in scope and cannot be used to model all the aspects of the processes that practitioners are interested in. A new generic construction process modelling method, GEPM, was developed to overcome the deficiencies of the current methods. GEPM uses object-oriented principles, and has borrowed features, such as activity, task, and temporal dependency, from methods like IDEF0 and scheduling. GEPM is flexible in the sense that the conceptual model can be changed to achieve additional special features. This capability is also supported by the database implementation, which enables users to interact with the developed process models through views that represent partial models. The views support the IDEF0, scheduling, and simple flow methods. There are, though, rules for how to convert between the partial models through views. The evaluation of GEPM showed that more modelling features, i.e. modelling power, are obtained in comparison with the earlier methods. One of the essential features of GEPM is the distinction between activities and tasks. Activities define how an action will be carried out, generally using predetermined inputs to achieve a predetermined output, whereas tasks are activities with additionally specified starting and finishing times, duration and location. Moreover, a task has a type-attribute that refers to an activity where its overall template is defined. Before the actual evaluation, case material from a real project was preliminarily tested with GEPM along with the prototype application. It turned out that some additions were needed to the conceptual model of GEPM and to the prototype application. GEPM can be used for process improvement, process management, and for enhancing communication in a construction process. One usage scenario for GEPM is to define quality systems and reference models, using the activity sub-model and storing the results in the GEPM database. A project-specific model can be derived from the reference model using conversion rules, and it eventually turns into a project specific-schedule with tasks.

Keywords: Process model, IDEF0, Construction

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Karstila K, Pehrsson R

SteelBase - implementing product data exchange for constructional steelwork

Abstract: The paper describes the results from the Finnish SteelBase project in implementing standardised product data exchange for construction. The application area of the project is the exchange of constructional steelwork data from the structural designers to the fabricators. The enabling technologor the project are STEP product data technology emerging from ISO TC184/SC4 work, and the results from the European CIMsteel-project. The paper describes SteelBase by the methodologies used, developed implementation, and the achieved results and firseriences in constructional steelwork data exchange. Introduction The Finnish FINNSTEEL technology program aims at the promotion of steel construction in general, and more specifically at the decreasing of building costs and project lead times. The objective of SteelBase, a project within the FINNSTEEL framework, articular is to develop and implement neutral data exchange for constructional steelwork between the structural designers and the fabricators. Neutral, standard-based, product data exchange streamlines the information logistics of the design/manufacturing process, and increases the possibilities to exploit the design data in the downstream activities, like production planning. The enabling technologies The SteelBase basis its work on two efforts, namely ISO STEP standardisation work and European CIMsteel/Eureka -project. STEP product data technology (Standard for The Exchange of Product model data) has been developed over the years as an international standardisation effort in ISO TC184/SC4 Industrial Data committee. STEP technology is a comprehensive set of methods, standards and tools for realising the neutral exchange of product model data between computer applications. CIMsteel-project has defined a data exchange specification, so-called CIMsteel Integration Standards (CIS), for the exchange of constructional steelwork product data. In its developments CIMsteel has, on the other hand used STEP product data technolond on the other hand the CIS-standard will form the basis for the development of an international STEP data exchange standard or Application Protocol for constructional steelwork (AP 230). SteelBase status In its first phase SteelBase: 1) defined a data exchange specification based on CIS with some additional Finnish flavouring for e.g. section profiles and materials identification; 2) defined standard report types for constructional steelwork designs;3) developed a computer application, StBrowser, which is a general purpose browser for constructional steelwork product models. StBrowser allows for view and editing of steelwork product models, bill-of-materials report generation and conversions of the data into some additional data formats. StBrowser serves for the receiving of steelwork product data, and its exploitation.g. production planning and manufacturing by the fabricator. In the current, second phase of SteelBase the focus of the development is in expanding the usage of SteelBase data exchange by implementing additional data conversion facilities to the StBrowser, e.g. for the numerical control of machine tools. Also, EDIFACT and VRML converters are under consideration.

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Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.038700) class.software-software (0.026935) class.impact (0.015014)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Kenji Ito

An object-oriented pproject model approach for integrated information system in A/WC industry

Abstract: As clients' requests are becoming more diverse and extensive than ever, it is necessary to concentrate compony whole efforts and to fortify cooperation among different divisions in the A/E/C industry. In the past development of information systems, was basic focused on increasing efficency of particular domain tasks, and was not enough to respond current problems. Therefore, a new method of developing collaborative and integrated informaton systems is required to synthesize resources in order to achieve total efficiency. However, it is difficult to generate, share and maintain project data during the various phases of the A/E/C project life cycle from planning to design, construction and management of the facility. The project data needs to be stored, retrieved, manipulated, and updated by many project participants, each with his/her own view of the information. In order to realize the model description of an A/E/Cproject, such a project model should support both product-based description and process-based description. Therefore the author has been proposed an object- oriented project model (called PMAPM) supporting the multiple views that are required by various participants in A/E/C pojects, which is very important for integration of the A/E/C industry. The scope of this research is to establish an object-oriented project model supporting multiple views shared by various A/E/C project participants and provide several type of sub-product model for by computer-based systems using multiple views. The objective is the eventual development of an integrated system which includes activities from project planning through design, estimation, construction and facility management. The object-oriented project model is intended to link CAD systems, relational databases, knowledge-based expert systems and other conventional software. This paper describes the development, present status and future directions for PMAPM, an object-oriented project model designed to facilitate infonnation sharing along the paths through which workflows between project stages or specialists.

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Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.029631) class.software development (0.026600) class.communication (0.020650)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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