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Dawood N, Sriprasert E, Mallasi Z, Scott D

An industrial evaluation of the virtual construction site (VIRCON) tools

Abstract: Implementation of the emerging information technologies in the construction industry has been relatively slow in comparison with other industries. Many research and development projects conducted by academia have not been tested and implemented successfully in the real practices. Considering this issue, the VIRtual CONstruction site (VIRCON) research project, funded by the UK government, was developed. VIRCON is a strategic decision support system for practical use to manage construction schedules, and in particular space planning. The successful development of the system was based upon the industrial requirements, real-life project data, and finally evaluated by the industrial collaborators. This paper briefly introduces the VIRCON system and thoroughly reports on the industrial user evaluation. The aims of the evaluation were to establish the usefulness and usability of the individual VIRCON tools, and to indicate the potential commercialisation and implementation of VIRCON tools in real practices. Ten collaborators from the construction industry evaluated VIRCON through a real-life case study. The space planning approach and visualisation features developed in this project were found practical and communicative.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


E Santos, E Toledo Santos

Design Coordination with Building Information Modelling – BIM: A Case Study

Abstract: Despite some isolated initiatives using 3D CAD or BIM (Building Information Modeling) tools, project processes in the Brazilian AEC industry are still essentially developed using 2D technology, especially in the design development phases. There is evidence in the literature that 2D representations are prone to difficult-to-detect design errors and representation mistakes. BIM is an emerging paradigm based on object oriented, parameterized 3D CAD tools that promises an even better performance in design coordination processes than standard 3D CAD. This work aims to identify the potential for using BIM tools in the design coordination process as a more effective alternative to two-dimensional methods (abstraction and overlaying of drawings for interference checks and clash detection among different design disciplines). The research was based on the execution of a case study involving a complex residential building. Its design was developed as usual, with 2D CAD, as was its coordination process, by professional firms hired by the owner. Afterwards, using the same documents provided to the coordination firm, the first author independently developed the architectural, structural, plumbing, and HVAC BIM models for the standard floor plan of the building, simulating both the Schematic Design (SD) and the Design Development (DD) phases. During and after this process, detected interferences and information errors or omissions were documented in order to be compared with those reported in the traditional process of design coordination. The comparative analysis of both reports in this case study showed that the methodology with BIM detected 75% more design interferences and inconsistencies than the 2D-CAD supported method. This was partly due to the easier visualization of the virtual model, and to the software features for automating interference checks. On the other hand, the analysis of the interferences found in both processes demonstrated that the modeling procedure alone can affect design perception and evaluation, allowing the detection of a greater number of incompatibilities during the process.

Keywords: Design Coordination, BIM, Clash Detection, Case study

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Elham Delzendeh and Song Wu

The Influence of Space Layout Design on OccupantÕs Energy Behaviour

Abstract: In the past 15 years, the calculation of energy consumption in buildings has become more and more critical due to growing scientific and political concerns to respond to the challenges of global warming and climate change. The estimation of energy demand in buildings is now often a required process during the design stages. Yet, there is a considerable discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption in buildings due to occupantsÕ energy consumption activities. OccupantsÕ presence and their interactions with building systems play a significant role in buildingÕs energy consumption; however, it has been overlooked in building energy predictions. Different studies have been performed with the aim to better understand the parameters affecting occupantÕs energy behaviour with special focus on climatic, economics, regulations and social/personal aspects. Interior design of the space, too, has various impacts on behaviours of occupants and their interactions with building systems which affects the energy consumption of buildings. Space layout is a feature within interior design of space which influences occupantsÕ movement and choices of intentional behaviours. This paper highlights a gap in the knowledge by introducing Òspace layoutÓ features as an influential factor on occupantÕs energy behaviours and propose an analytical method to study the impact of the space layout on occupantsÕ energy behaviours. Understanding the impact will help designers influence the sustainable behaviour through the design of interior spaces.

Keywords: Space Layout Design, Energy Consumption, OccupantÕs Behaviour

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0235

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Fridqvist S

Implementation of a dynamic information system for design

Abstract: This paper reports an implementation of the conceptually most important features of the BAS.CAAD information system, and the use of this implementation to create models of different levels of generalisation in the construction context. The foundations for the BAS.CAAD information system, which have been presented in an earlier paper, are briefly described. It is a dynamic information system for design, built on a generic ontological framework. The system supports the definition of classes in different levels of universality; the classes may originate from different standards or the individual designer, and allows a free combination of attributes.

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Full text: content.pdf (106,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.020092) class.legal (0.004521) class.standards (0.003381)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


G J Brewer, T Gajendran & S E Chen

The use of ICT in the construction industry: critical success factors and strategic relationships in temporary project organisations

Abstract: This paper describes the application of a previously developed model of critical success factors for ICT-mediated chains to three construction project supply chains. These cases drew on the experiences of key stakeholder organisations within each in order to firstly, identify the extent to which features of a previously developed, generalised model of ICT success factors were present in each case, and secondly to extend the model in respect of those aspects relating to pre-existing relationships, strategic relationship formation, and the expectation of a continuing business relationship into the future. The paper is structured to describe the protocols and analysis used, and to report a summary of the findings across the three cases.

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Full text: content.pdf (205,231 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


G Kapogiannis, F Khosrowshahi, J Underwood

Digital Services for Construction Small and Medium Enterprises: A Conceptual Business Model

Abstract: The rapid deployment of web technologies delivers information from diverse sources in the world of digital business in a unified way. Within the construction industry the demand for investments in the digital dimension has raised very fast indicating a trend towards on-line collaboration services usually offered through a web portal. The main purpose of this research is to examine how the use of a web portal enhances the mission of construction Small Medium Enterprises (SME) in the local, national and international economy. Therefore, features and services captured from existing construction web portals are listed quantitatively to indicate those that are important to support the enterprise needs of construction managers and directors. Additionally the common practical and essential features considered in the technical and contextual design of a web portal geared for the use within the domain of construction SMEs in order to promote enterprise continuity in digital business are briefly presented. Results indicate potential support of interaction and collaboration among partners in the construction industry due to direct information accessibility as well as an attractive web platform developed based upon their daily needs. Therefore the need to develop a web business model is suggested to enhance the role of construction SMEs with a focus on online collaboration (online services). This model aspires to provide potential practical on-line dissemination of knowledge within construction SMEs to help the world of construction managers and directors in order for them to be more efficient, effective and creative when developing new businesses, new ideas and new projects. This model is partitioned to accommodate for flexible and scalable technological infrastructures that offer the necessary web services addressed to construction SMEs.

Keywords: Construction SME, Web Portal Technologies, Web Services, Virtual Organisation, Communication

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Full text: content.pdf (330,893 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Galjaard H C, Vos C J, Kunst S

EUROCADCRETE - an improved design exercise in reinforced concrete

Abstract: "The paper will present the results of 10 years of experience with a CAD/CAL reinforced concrete design exercise at Delft University of Technology. The exercise was developed in 1988 and 1989, implemented in 1989 for a test and in 1990 for regular use. Over 1200 students have used it since then. Students were asked to size and detail components of a simple reinforced concrete building, consisting out of columns, slabs and continuous beams at a workstation of the university CAD-Training Centre. The computer checked the results, gave feedback on these results, and let the students correct them until found satisfactory. Although the exercise was quite successful in the beginning, the success decreased in time because equipment and software got out-fashioned compared to other hard- and software students could use. Another drawback of the program was the very strict checking criteria used, which often tempted the students to solve the problem by ‘trial and error’. This didactic unwanted situation was also reason to improve the program. In 1999 the workstations have been removed and the exercise could not be continued any more. From several options available for the development of a new exercise, like upgrading the program or developing a complete new program, it was decided to adapt a commercially available program. In joint venture with a Software consultant, Matrix Software bv, a complete new exercise is being developed, tested and implemented. The exercise is based on the existing commercial software from this company for the design of concrete structures. Another reason to select this program for the development of the exercise is that it is already being used for structural analysis at the university. The program has several new features compared with the first one. It tries to implement some engineering judgement, by asking the student for answers based on rules of thumb, before computer-calculations are started. Furthermore the computer will not tell whether something is right or wrong according the code but it will show the result, leaving the judgement to the student. Another improvement will be that the exercise will contain some exercise in estimating and parameter-studies, asking for the effects of increase and decrease of sizes on the costs of a structure. The student can get help from the computer on different levels. Counting the amount and level of help being required and the time consumed may be used for a judgement. The program will use Eurocode 2 and will be made available for users who are interested all through Europe. The paper will not only describe the program, but will deal with the technical and educational results of the first implementation in spring 2000."

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Full text: content.pdf (311,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.024726) class.impact (0.022326) class.software development (0.019486)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Gehre A, Katranuschkov P

Human-centred knowledge-based model access service for engineers

Abstract: This paper presents the Model Access Service (MAS) developed in the EU ISTforCE project (IST-1999-11508). It uses the capabilities of product data technology to provide value added services in a human-centred, web-based collaboration environment. Along with standard services for product model access on model and object level, it encompasses also two advanced knowledge-based features: a Reasoning Agent and an Explanation Component. MAS is developed as a self-contained system that can be used in a variety of ways. In the ISTforCE framework, it is integrated with an external Product Data Server (PDS) and a Core Information Server (CIS) which provide the necessary infrastructure enabling the full functionality of MAS. Standard functionality for model level access is provided by using MAS as a central tool that enables generalised data exchange capabilities to all relevant product models in one or more construction projects, even if they are stored on different product data servers. This is done on the basis of user and account information retrieved from the CIS. To enable the use of the product models directly, MAS provides an API for generalised RPC-based model access on object level. One of the two advanced features of MAS is the integrated Reasoning Agent which is responsible for replying to sophisticated queries concerning a specific structural design model, extending the IFC2x core model. It allows clients to use AI planning methods remotely, to generate solution sequences that combine the computed single Solver items. The second advanced feature incorporated in the MAS is the Engineering Ontology layer. It enables the translation of IFC data to the vocabulary and semantics familiar to end users. This unique feature of the MAS, distinguishing it from most proposed product data services to date, is augmented by an Explanation Component which opens many of its functions to standard Web Browsers.

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Full text: content.pdf (518,767 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.045124) class.retrieve (0.038403) class.communication (0.021612)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Gowri K, Chassin D P

Softdesk energy: an effective methodology for integrating CAD and energy analysis

Abstract: Integrating energy analysis within a CAD environment provides designers the opportunity to evaluate the energy impact of design decisions much earlier in the design process than previously possible with simulation tools. Softdesk Energy is a design tool that integrates building energy analysis capability (ASHRAE "SEAM") into a highly automated production drafting environment (AutoCAD and Softdesk AutoArchitect). The authors review the technical challenges of integrating analytic methods into design tools, the opportunities such integrated tools create for building designers, and the uses of such a tool from the perspective of a current user of Softdesk Energy. A comparison between the simplified calculations in Softdesk Energy and detailed simulations using DOE-2 energy analysis is made to evaluate the applicability of the simplified analysis during preliminary design stages. As a unique example of integrating design and drafting, Softdesk Energy provides an opportunity to study the strengths and weaknesses of integrated design tools and gives some insight into the future direction of the CAD software towards meeting the needs of diverse design disciplines. This paper will present the modeling extensions required to enhance CAD data for energy analysis using a geometry interpreter and user-interface features required to assist designers with appropriate default values. In addition, details of the Industry Foundation Class developed by IAI and how it can support integration of energy analysis will also be presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (54,763 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.041062) class.environment (0.038187) class.synthesis (0.037896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Gul, Leman; Gu, Ning; and Williams, Anthony

A New Approach to Design Education: Evaluations of 3D Virtual Worlds on Design Teaching and Learning

Abstract: With the recent developments in information and communication technologies, 3D virtual worlds have the potential to make a major contribution to design education as constructivist learning environments. Considering the changing trend in design education, we have been employing cutting-edge technologies in our design teaching, allowing students to collaborate within the 3D virtual environments such as Second Life (www.secondlife.com) and Active Worlds (www.activeworlds.com), which support synchronized design communication and real-time 3D modeling. This paper reports our teaching experience and the students’ learning experience, based on team-based design and communication skills-building in 3D virtual environments and presents the challenges faced by design education. In this paper, we will firstly provide a critical analysis of various design learning and teaching features in 3D virtual environments as constructivist learning environments, and secondly identify issues which address the core skills and cognitive processes involved when designing in 3D virtual environments.

Keywords: 3D virtual worlds, design teaching and learning, affordances and constraints

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Full text: content.pdf (260,145 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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