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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systems’s disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications’ local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Ipek Gursel, Rudi Stouffs, Sevil Sariyildiz

A computational framework for integration of performance information during the building lifecycle

Abstract: Optimal indoor environments in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality are essential to maintain healthy and productive spaces. To address the high occupant comfort and energy efficiency requirements, advanced HVAC systems that have narrow performance boundaries are used. It is crucial to achieve the satisfactory operational level for systems and buildings by the adoption of performance based verification strategies. Performance-based approach requires the continuous verification of the actual performance against objectives during the building lifecycle. Building commissioning, building energy management systems (BEMS) and operations and main-tenance are effective tools to verify optimum building performance and have the potential to embed performance as-sessment into the building lifecycle. However, transfer of performance information from one method or building phase to another is difficult. A considerable amount of valuable information is lost due to the lack of an integrated framework that bridges different islands of information. This becomes most problematic during the operational phase, where de-sign data and performance trends are the main basis for decision making for facilities management staff. To achieve a persistent performance evaluation across phases and stakeholders, a flexible and seamless communication infrastruc-ture across disciplines and processes is necessary. The software architecture for a continuous performance verification and communication environment for indoor cli-mate and ventilation systems is introduced. The purpose of the model is to provide a framework that integrates commis-sioning, BEMS monitoring and inspection/maintenance activities, to avoid erosion of domain information during hand-overs and over time. The model retains continual information of building and makes this information available during building operations and [re]commissioning. A formal relationship structure is proposed between performance indices to support traceability of design and operations decisions. The paper will be concluded with reflections into the future work, which includes implementation and proposed strategies for validation of the model by test cases.

Keywords: building lifecycle performance assessment, building commissioning, BEMS

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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K A Brunner & A Mahdavi

The software design of a dynamic building model service

Abstract: We present the software architecture and a prototypical implementation of a dynamic building model service system. The primary purpose of this model service is to support (simulation-assisted) indoor-environmental control operations in buildings. However, as a comprehensive, structured, sensor-based, and self-updating information resource, the model can support other building tasks such as those concerned with building logistics and management. At the core of our model service design, an object tree continuously updated from sensor data reflects the current state of the building, concurrently accessible to multiple clients and backed by persistent storage. The service is embedded in a distributed infrastructure based on tuple spaces for transparent object-based communication between system components. The preliminary evaluation of the model service system suggests that the proposed design is feasible and appropriate for further testing in realistic (large-scale) settings.

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Full text: content.pdf (693,574 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Sandakly F, Kloosterman S, Poyet P

PerDiS: persistent distributed store for virtual enterprise concurrent engineering *

Abstract: The availability of a host of software systems for the architects, the engineers and more generally for the construction practitioners has changed the business practice and modified the construction processes. Most of the project data are stored in some electronic form and most of the activities from the brief down to facility management resort to these data. The term Virtual Enterprise (VE) is more and more used to refer to this new complex information technology infrastructure. Exchange and sharing of technical data between construction project's partners, all along the project life cycle, is an important requirement for all participants in a VE. During the last few years an important effort has been undertaken in different research projects to define the software infrastructure of the future VE. While data modeling was mainly based on STEP methodology and norms, software solutions in these works were extremely varied. Studies cover distribution of data and applications, concurrent access as well as security, authentication and data ownership. Among these works we can cite those of NIIIP (and its derived works in SHIIP and SPARS) in US and European ESPRIT projects like VEGA and GENIAL. Nevertheless, the problem of sharing and concurrently accessing data by different partners during a product life cycle still far from being solved. In this paper we present a new approach to build a software infrastructure for the VE. It is based on a platform of persistent-distributed and shared memory called PerDiS. In this approach memory is shared between all applications, even located at different site or running at different times. Coherent caching of data improves performance and availability, ensures that applications have a consistent view of data, and free developers from manually managing object location. Persistence by reachability, based on a distributed garbage collector frees programmers from dealing with explicit data storage. PerDiS offers transactional mechanisms and checkpointing as well as notification when data is dirty. Applications can defines their security policy and data access right based on a task/role model. Distribution granularity can be tuned at application level and/or PerDiS platform level. This allows an easy porting of existing applications where default distribution granularity can be adopted and shift this delicate problem from programming/object level to the applications/VE level for new application development. To port STEP existing applications, we implement the STEP Data Access Interface (SDAI) on the top of PerDiS after extending its main concepts to meet the requirements of distribution, concurrent access and data security. We will show some experiment results and performance measurements. * This work is partially sponsored by PerDiS Esprit Project (22533).

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Full text: content.pdf (92,319 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.051509) class.software-software (0.010990) class.software development (0.009899)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Zarli A, Rezgui Y

A survey of internet-oriented technologies for document-driven applications in construction open dynamic virtual environments

Abstract: "Various technologies ranging from standards for data exchange and product / process modeling, to integration through the use of object-oriented technologies, have been experimented and used in order to highlight the benefits of information and communication technologies in the construction domain. In particular, this last decade has seen a tremendous activity in new specifications and developments of standards and architectures for enterprise application integration. Indeed, integration and seamless communication between software applications (proprietary and commercial) are increasingly becoming fundamental issues tackled by a variety of emerging technologies. However, all these latest IT developments didn’t have the expected impact on the construction industry. This is due to several factors, including poor investment in construction IT by SMEs, and mismatch between IT innovations and Construction industry needs. In fact, behind the global issue of application integration within the (real or virtual) enterprise, appear a lot of architectural problems (along with the “right” selection of tools, toolboxes and infrastructures) that take a critical dimension in the case of open systems and standard issues. The building sector is essentially characterised by its fragmentation, with a high proportion of SMEs involved in the design and build process of Construction projects: this means, from a macroscopic point of view, that designed infrastructures must be adequate to support Extranets and Virtual enterprises. Consequently, the problematic is not only to ensure internal communication between systems as in a single, even large, company, but to provide the required capacity to exchange information and collaborate outside the boundaries of the information systems constituting the IT infrastructure of a company, including means to organise the flow of information and the co-ordination of tasks. To address the issues of communication and interoperability, several routes have been explored and are still under development: after an initial phase related to bulk exchange of documents, middleware has become the focus, with investigations around CORBA or DCOM (for middleware-oriented application integration), and MOM (for the routing and formatting “on-the-fly” of messages). More recently, new architectures have been suggested, especially the now well-known 3-Tier based architecture and application servers (Client desktop – middle-tier Web or application server – DBMS/persistent storage). Eventually, technologies dedicated to the Web has risen, particularly the XML technology, and Java-oriented technologies like JSP and servlets. Driven by the identification of intra- and inter-company business processes and information / process requirements of the Construction domain, and also on case studies and experiments conducted in previous European projects, including VEGA, GENIAL and CONDOR, this paper proposes a survey and first evaluation of open Internet-oriented technology and standards for use in open dynamic virtual environments, and analyses the potential usefulness of some current technologies, specifically MOM, CORBA, XML, and application servers (for the handling of business objects). The paper also highlights the benefits of using XML, as a technology for flexible and dynamic representation of complex objects (including documents) and their stream-based interchange, along with distributed object frameworks such as CORBA for remote access to data. Finally, the paper concentrates on the need related to the design of an infrastructure for application integration and tasks collaboration, and elaborates on how recent IT fit into architectures required for the specific needs and peculiarities of the construction industry. 1. Message Oriented Middleware. 2. Java Server Pages. 3. This work is realised in the scope of the OSMOS European project: Open System for inter-enterprise information Management in dynamic virtual envirOnmentS, IST-1999-10491 project."

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Full text: content.pdf (308,492 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.082384) class.communication (0.039950) class.collaboration (0.028661)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Zarli A, Richaud O, Buckley E

Requirements, barriers and trends in advanced technologies for the large scale engineering uptake

Abstract: Corporations are today becoming largely distributed, and deeply founded on networking technology allowing to share and access information in different locations. In the same time, information systems have become the spinal chord of the modern enterprise, appropriate information tools satisfying fast reactive business requirements and offering a strategic corporate advantage. One of the main issues now is to ensure that the vital information, for which the virtual enterprise has a special dependency, is easily accessed and manipulated by multiple actor-oriented applications, thereby satisfying the need for improved customer service, on-time delivery, quality management and project co-ordination. With the popularity of the Web and its use in productive industry environments, the coupling of suppliers, manufacturers, and customers seems an attractive and reachable goal. Applications are requested to authorise employees, business partners and customers to access critical data from their desktop anywhere in the world over the Internet, supporting the browsing of data and documents contained in large electronic vaults by connecting to the server from any supported WEB browser client, provided they have appropriate access privilege. This paper aims at identifying, with a focus on the Building Construction sector, the current major requirements and barriers along with the possible use of new standard based technology in order to foster a better industrial exploitation of the large information sources located both on the WEB and in enterprises databases accessible through the WEB. Needs can be: * End-user and process oriented needs, like information modelling, persistent and coherent data storing, data exchange and distribution, availability and interoperability issues, concurrent access, security (i.e. data protection and confidentiality levels configuration), uniform access to any type of databases, uniform presentation on client side (i.e. not from any tool-oriented point of view), coupling of WEB data with internal corporate information, etc. * Needs in terms of computer-based systems, as open architecture, scalability, reusable components, integration of legacy systems, flexibility, and so on. Despite advances in computer technology providing more reliable and relevant mechanisms and tools for information management in the large, companies still deal with intricate and non flexible corporate information systems, with an increasing complexity in software development and use. To mask this complexity, we promote the concept of business objects (BO), which are software components encapsulating business rules and aiming at providing secure sophisticated access to diverse electronic content and applications. BO (*) are defined as components of the information system representing the enterprise business model, and are to be promising enablers to build information systems meeting end users and customers requirements, thus revealing critical to the success of the enterprise. BO will be managed in the WONDA (**) project, which aims at extending the infrastructure and services of current wide area networks towards a broader industrial and commercial usage, for the deployment of the information and communication infrastructure in the industry. WONDA will be a framework of open and interchangeable BO enabling configurability according to business solutions. It will offer an industry-wide and enterprise-wide framework for the development of WEB solutions to construction industry business needs, thus turning the WEB into a viable infrastructure for industrial manufacturing and commerce.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,086 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.041943) class.collaboration (0.031481) class.strategies (0.021536)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


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