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Owor ologe Daniel


Abstract: NAME: OWOR OLOGE DANIEL COURSE UNIT: STRUCTURES AND TIMBER DESIGN (FPE 3205) FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILING DESIGNING Design in timber involves application of the principles of engineering in planning the creation of a configuration or construction with timber as a material. Structural design is the process exploring configuration loading, boundary conditions, material properties and specification. The explanation of the major considerations in design of timber structure now follows: The designer must know the type of structure to be designed by exploring the techniques of engineering drawings with good interpretation of views and be in position to transform the paper drawing and use it to set the exact building without distorting the dimensions from the reference bench mark. It is necessary to know the intended purpose of design in relation to fit the requirement of the end user. The design for library hall is different from music theater hall where the latter needs wood that absorbs sound and noise. The chair for a seven (7) year boy is small than that of a mature person. The designer must choose wood material with properties like high quality , good grade , high strength with good grain alignment , less expensive, good aesthetic ( where appearance & beauty ) , high durability. Furthermore, the wood material should have No sign of defeat like knots, decay and rots, insect and pest attack. The structure itself must remain workable in time of sawing and driving connectors such as nails, bolts. The designer therefore chooses wood based on the above properties to fit its functional requirements. Hardwood mahogany is resistant to machining operation and driving of nails with ease and therefore must not be used for roof work. The geographical location to a designer is very important factor under consideration. In areas or environment which susceptible to high wind and earthquake requires respectively the structural timber to remain rigid and flexible. Others environmental factors such whether, climatic conditions that must cause distortion by swelling and shrinking need to be taken care of as well as fire hazards. The geometry of the structure is the major consideration in the design of timber structure. Different members in the designed structure requires orientation angles of pitch as in roof to be known as well as the total span and total rise of the truss rafter. In design iron roofed sheet are inclined gently as compared tiled roof. The latter has timber members closely spaced. It is necessary to design timber structure based on the expected live, wind, dead loads and those due to earthquake. The structure must remain supportive, static to counter act applied forces and should the permissible state to cause collapse due to defection and buckling as in beam and columns respectively. The structure has to meet the requirement of the authorities by taking into consideration laws, regulation and policies by adopting codes of practice for a particular designed structure .for example codes of practice BS 4978: 1973 addresses visual grading of timber to fit in general structure and special structure. Some may address safety, challenges, welfare and safeguard of public health. The designer shall need to choose materials that are economically less expensive to afford reduced labor and maintenance costs but at high desirable quality to maximize benefits. The substitutes and completes should compeat less with wood and be bought at lower price. The structural integrity should be flexible to allow demolition, alteration of existing building and extension to latter case. Even after use the material must be re-used again in a new or in renovated building without breakage. The safety measures to prevent accidents, injuries during and after completion of building must be examined so that thousands of lives and properties in Uganda are rescued. The structure should serve its lifespan for which it was designed. At times cultural norms and practices dictate on the type of building structure to be erected. Special wood species are utilized in shrines so the design must meet all categories of the community by address the likes and dislike. Conclusively, any person intending to design a timber structure should foresee the need of all the above the address the current problem in our country and extent their knowledge on any type of design. The situation of unemployment, poverty shouldn’t decline our population.



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